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  Dulle Griet (Mad Meg) c. 1562 (200 Kb); Oil on panel, 117.4 x 162 cm; Museum Mayer van den Bergh, Antwerp
Pieter Bruegel the Elder, generally considered the greatest Flemish painter of the 16th century, is by far the most important member of the family.
 
     
 
 
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This section will provide you with historic artists whose art formed a culture of their own. The true values of their arts has been established over the long years since the passing of the old masters, and styles replicated and improved many times along the way.

Studio Treasure has historical information as well as artistic analysis of many artworks composed by the old masters. Artists such as Pieter Bruegel The Elder, Pavel Nikolaevich Filonov, Caspar David Friedrich, Odilon Redon, Vincent Van Gogh, have their own articles on the left, and external links are provided to other outside sources for more information on many other artists below.

 

 

Art History Culture Museums Artists Old Masters Gallery oil-painting etching drawing sculpture Giotto di Bondone Jan van Eyck Roger Van der Weyden Piero della Francesca Andrea Mantegna Alessandro Botticelli Hieronymus Bosch Leonardo da Vinci Albrecht Durer Lucas Cranach the Elder Michelangelo Buonarroti Titian Raphael Hans Holbein The Younger Jacopo Tintoretto Paolo Veronese El Greco Caravaggio Peter Paul Rubens Frans Snyders Nicolas Poussin Francisco de Zurbaran Anthony Van Dyck Diego Velazquez Rembrandt van Rijn Jan Vermeer Giovanni Battista Tiepolo Jean Chardin Joshua Reynolds Francisco Goya Jacques-Louis David masterpiece Odilon Redon ancient art abstract expressionism art deco art nouveau Barbizon School baroque Bauhaus byzantine classicism Pieter Bruegel The Elder fauvism Gothic impressionism mannerism Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood Realism, Renaissance Rococo romanticism surrealism Pavel Filonov symbolism
 
     
 
 
 
 
ARTISTS
 

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BABOCCIO DA PIPERNO, Antonio
(c. 1351-1435)Early RenaissanceItalian sculptor (Naples)
BABUREN, Dirck van
(c. 1590-1624)BaroqueDutch painter (Utrecht) Baburen, Dirck van (c. 1590—1624). Dutch painter, one of the principal members of the *Utrecht school. For a short period he worked in Rome, where he was affected by the work of Caravaggio; he was one of the first to introduce Caravaggio's chiaroscuro technique into the Netherlands. *Tenebrist.
BACCHIACCA
(1494-1557)High RenaissanceItalian painter (Florence) Bacchiacca Francesco Ubertini (1494— 1557). Florentine painter, probably a pupil of Perugino but with an eclectic style most heavily influenced by Andrea del Sarto. B. painted religious subjects and decorative panels for walls or furniture, and designed tapestries.
BACICCIO
(1639-1709)BaroqueItalian painter (Rome) Baciccia (Baciccio). Nickname of Giovanni Battista Gaulli (1639-1709), one of the finest Italian Baroque portrait painters and decorators. His style was influenced by Rubens and Van Dyck. Working in Rome, where he was a friend of Bernini, he produced masterpieces of illusionist decorative work, notably the ceiling of the church of II Gesu (1668-83).
BACKER, Jacob Adriaensz.
(1608-1651)BaroqueDutch painter (Amsterdam) Backer Jacob Adriaensz (1608-51). Dutch portrait painter and pupil of Rembrandt whose influence on him was strong. He was also influenced by the work of Hals.
BACKER, Jacob de
(1555/60-1585/90)MannerismFlemish painter
BACKHUYSEN, Ludolf
(1631-1708)BaroqueDutch painter
Backof(f)en Hans (d. 1519). German late Gothic sculptor, from 1505 active in Mainz. His work includes the tomb of Archbishop Uriel von Gcimmngen (Mainz cathedral) and Crucifixion groups in the churchyards of St Peter's and the cathedral, Frankfurt.
BACON, John
(1740-1799)NeoclassicismEnglish sculptor
BADALOCCHIO, Sisto
(1585-c. 1619)BaroqueItalian painter (Rome)
Badger Joseph (1708-65). American colonial painter. His style combines *primitive elements with the academic post-Kneller tradition of *Smibert and *Feke. His works include The Rev. Jonathan Eduards and Mrs Cassius Hunt.
BAEGERT, Derick
(c. 1440-c. 1515)Northern RenaissanceGerman painter (Wesel) Baegert Derick(b c. 1440; d Wesel, after 1502). He worked in Wesel in the lower Rhine region, but similarities in style between Derick’s works and panel paintings and book illustrations made in Utrecht indicate that he may have trained in that city. He was in Wesel by 1476 and painted a flag, probably for the town hall. From that year he is frequently mentioned in contracts, accounts and tax lists. In 1490 Derick’s son Jan was already a master, which suggests he was at least 25 and consequently Derick must then have been about 50. His home in the Mathena quarter of Wesel is last mentioned in 1502.
BAELLIEUR, Cornelis de
(1607-1671)BaroqueFlemish painter (Antwerp)
BAEN, Jan de
(1633-1702)BaroqueDutch painter
BAGLIONE, Giovanni
(c. 1566-1643)BaroqueItalian painter (Rome)
Baglione Giovanni (c. 1573-1644). Italian late Mannerist painter and the author of a history of art in Rome during his lifetime, Le vite de' pit-tori, scultori ed
architetti ... (1642). In spite of the hostility lie expressed towards Caravaggio, his own painting c. 1600 acquired a superficial likeness to Oaravaggio's. He was one of the artists commissioned by Pope Paul V to paint frescoes in the church of S. Maria Maggiore, Rome.
Bailey William (American, 1930)
BAILLY, David
(1584-1657)BaroqueDutch painter (Leiden) Bailly David(b Leiden, 1584; d Leiden, Oct 1657). Dutch painter and draughtsman. The son of a Flemish immigrant who was a calligrapher and fencing-master, Bailly was apprenticed to a local surgeon-painter and then to Cornelius van der Voort (1576–1624), a portrait painter in Amsterdam. In the winter of 1608 he started out as a journeyman, spending a year in Hamburg and then travelling through several German cities to Venice and Rome. On the return voyage he visited several courts in Germany, working for local princes, including the Duke of Brunswick-Wolfenbuttel. While no works survive from the immediate period following his return to the Netherlands in 1613, descriptions in old sale catalogues suggest that he may have produced history paintings in the manner of his contemporaries Pieter Lastman and the Pynas brothers.
BAILLY, Jacques I
(c. 1634-1679)BaroqueFrench miniaturist (Paris)
BAILLY, Jacques II
(c. 1700-1768)BaroqueFrench painter (Paris)
Baily Edward Hodges (1788-1867). British sculptor. He studied under *Flaxman. Carved reliefs on Marble Arch, London, and Nelson's statue at Trafalgar Square, as well as numerous busts.
Baj Enrico (1924- ). Italian painter and maker of *assemblages incorporating *found objects, and combining humour and grotesque imagery.
BAKHUISEN, Ludolf (see BACKHUYSEN, Ludolf)
(1631-1708)BaroqueDutch painter
Bakst Leon (1866-1924). Russian artist and stage designer. After studying in Paris (1891) he returned to St Petersburg, where with *Benois and S. Diaghilev he collaborated on the magazine Mir lskusstva (The *World of Art). In 1909 he went to Paris and joined Diaghilev's Ballets Russes. Here his sets for the ballets Cleopatre (1909) and above all Scheherazade (1910) caused a sensation. B.'s designs, characterized by throbbing colours and exotic line, were the first to integrate costumes and sets into a visual unity. Other designs were for Nijmsky's ballet Le Spectre de la rose (1911), G. D'Annunzio's play La I'isanella and the ballet The Sleeping Princess (1921).
BALDASSARE da Reggio (see BALDASSARE ESTENSE)
(1443-1504)Early RenaissanceItalian painter (Ferrara)
BALDASSARE ESTENSE
(1443-1504)Early RenaissanceItalian painter (Ferrara)
Baldessari John (1931- ). U.S. artist who makes expansive use of media imagery from photographs, videos and film, sometimes associated with *Conceptual and *Postmodern art. B. has said that he wants 'to produce images that startle one into recollection'.
BALDINI, Baccio
(1436-1487)Early RenaissanceItalian graphic artist (Florence)
BALDOVINETTI, Alessio
(c.1425-1499)Early RenaissanceItalian painter (Florence) Baldovinetti Alesso (r. 1425-99). Florentine painter; studied under Domenico Veneziano. His surviving masterpiece, the fresco of the Annunciation, S. Annunzrata, Florence, shows his interest in landscape, the serenity of his figures and the sensitivity of his colour. B. executed work in stained glass and mosaic. He influenced Ghirlandaio.
Balduccio, Giovanni di (fl. 1315-49). Italian sculptor from Pisa.
BALDUCCI, Matteo
(c. 1509-1554)High RenaissanceItalian painter (Umbria)
BALDUNG GRIEN, Hans
(1484/85-1545)Northern RenaissanceGerman painter Baldung Hans Grien (c 1480-1545). German painter and graphic artist. He was influenced by Durer, under whom he probably studied, and indeed in his portraits he showed a psychological insight and mastery of drawing comparable to his master's. Besides portraits he painted allegorical subjects and, like Cranach, a series of female nudes; but his tame rested on his religious paintings, and the altarpiece 1'lie Coronation of the Virgin (1512-16), in the cathedral at Friehurg im Breisgau, is still considered his masterpiece. His paintings are characterized by their unusual colour combinations and his woodcuts by their inventiveness, fantasy and grotesque humour. He also designed for stained glass.
BALEN, Hendrick van
(1575-1632)BaroqueFlemish painter (Antwerp) Balen Hendrik van (1575-1632). Antwerp painter of small and charming landscapes, allegorical, biblical and mythological scenes. He collaborated with J. Bruegel the Younger, Momper and Vranckz. Van Dyck and Snyders were his pupils.
BALESTRA, Antonio
(1666-1740)BaroqueItalian painter (Verona) Balestra Antonio(1666-1740). Italian late-Baroque painter, pupil of *Maratta. He worked chiefly in Venice and Verona and was influential as a teacher.
Balla Giacomo(1871-1958). Italian painter, a founder of *Futurism; one of the signatories of the Futurist Manifesto (1910). On a visit to Paris (1900) he was strongly affected by the Impressionist and Divisionist painters. B.'s Dog on a Leash (1912), as an attempt to present motion by superimposing several images, is a logical exposition of Futurism; but his pictures developed towards abstract art, increasingly resolving into abstract lines of movement and force.
Balthus full name Balthasar Klossowski de Rola (1908- ). French painter of Polish descent. His early work owed much to *Bonnard and the *Nabis. Later, under the influence of Courbet and Derain, he developed a style which is naturalistic and yet modern, with occasional Surrealist overtones. Using muted colours, B. has produced remarkable landscapes, portraits and interiors with erotic-scenes of adolescent girls.
BALTENS, Peeter
(c. 1527-c. 1584)Northern RenaissanceFlemish painter (Antwerp)
BALZICO, Alfonso
(1825-1901)RealismItalian sculptor
BAMBAIA
(1483-1548)High RenaissanceItalian sculptor (Milan)
BAMBINI, Nicolò
(1651-1736)BaroqueItalian painter (Venice)
BAMBOCCIO (see LAER, Pieter van)
(1592/95-1642)BaroqueDutch painter (Rome)
Banco, Maso di ( fl 1335–50). Italian painter. He was first identified (as Maso) by Ghiberti, who claimed he was a pupil of Giotto and a great master of painting, but the issue was complicated for many centuries by Vasari, who confused Maso with an artist he called Tommaso di Stefano, nicknamed GIOTTINO. Maso di Banco is mentioned in several Florentine documents: in 1341 some of his paintings and equipment were seized against an uncompleted commission; in 1346 he joined the Arte de’ Medici e Speziali. Although none of the output attributed to him is signed or dated, a major fresco cycle, other more fragmentary frescoes and some panels of the 1330s and 1340s can be firmly attributed to him on stylistic grounds.
BANDINELLI, Baccio
(1488-1560)High RenaissanceItalian sculptor (Florence) Bandinelli Baccio(sometimes called 'Bartolommeo') (1403-1560). Florentine sculptor, painter and goldsmith. The muchhated rival of B. Cellini and in his own opinion the equal of Michelangelo. He executed a series of reliefs in Florence cathedral and founded 2 of the earliest *academies.
BANKS, Thomas
(1735-1805)NeoclassicismEnglish painter
BARABÁS, Miklós
(1810-1898)RomanticismHungarian painter
BARBARELLI, Giorgio (see GIORGIONE)
(1477-1510)Early RenaissanceItalian painter (Venice)
BARBARI, Jacopo de'
(c. 1445-1516)High RenaissanceItalian painter (Venice) Barbari Jacopo de' (c. 1450-1515/16). Venetian painter and draughtsman, perhaps of German origin, chiefly remembered as an engraver of mythological and sacred subjects. He worked for some time in Germany and the Netherlands where he was known as 'Jacob Walch'. His work was a link between the Italian and northern schools. He is credited with instructing Durer in the mathematical proportions of the human figure.
BARBARO, Daniele
(1514-1570)MannerismItalian architect (Venice)
BARBAULT, Jean
(1718-1762)BaroqueFrench painter (Rome)
Barbier Georges (1882 - 1932) was one of the great French illustrators of the early 20th century.
BARBIERI, Giovanni Francesco (see GUERCINO)
(1591-1666)BaroqueItalian painter (Bologna)
BARBIERI, Paolo Antonio
(1603-1649)BaroqueItalian painter
Barelli Agostino(1627-1699)
BARENDSZ., Dirck
(1534-1592)MannerismDutch painter (Amsterdam)
Barlach Ernst (Hemnch) (1870-1938). N. German sculptor, wood-carver, draughtsman and writer associated with Expressionism. He was at the Dresden Academy
(1891—5), and Paris (1805—6); in 1906 he visited Russia, in 1909 Florence. Russia shaped him: it was, for him, a land where symbol met reality. The Russian beggar symbolized and presented the truth about man; B.'s statements on human suffering, humiliation, callousness, are in terms of peasant life. The medieval associations of his work gained him a commission for sculptures at St Catherine's church, Lubeck, but the Nazi government, which destroyed many of B.'s public statues, stopped the work. Between 1898 and 1902, he ill. Die Jugend magazine. B.'s writings include the plays Der tote Tag; (1912), Die Sundflut (1924) and his autobiography (1928).
BARNA DA SIENA
(active mid-14th cent.)MedievalItalian painter (Siena)
BARNABA DA MODENA
(active 1361-1383)MedievalItalian painter Barnaba da Modena (fl. 1362-83). Italian painter of the Byzantine tradition whose work was influenced, but only slightly, by Giotto.
BAROCCI, Federico Fiori
(1526-1612)MannerismItalian painter (Urbino) Barocci Federico (1526—1612). Italian Mannerist painter who worked mostly in his native town of Urbino but also in Rome and elsewhere. His style went beyond *Mannensni and influenced 18th-c. French painters.
BARONZIO, Giovanni
(active c. 1344-c. 1362)MedievalItalian painter (Rimini)
BAROZZI, Giacomo (see VIGNOLA, Giacomo da)
(1507-1573)High RenaissanceItalian architect (Rome)
Barr Alfred Hamilton (1902-81). U.S. art historian and author who as director of M.O.M.A., 1929-43, and director of collections. 1947—67, exerted a prominent influence on the cause of international modern art. Publications include Cubism and Abstract Art, 1936; What is Modem Painting?, 1943; Picasso; Fifty years of His Art, 1946, and Matisse: His Art and His Public, 1951.
BARRA, Didier
(1590-1644)BaroqueFrench painter
BARRE, Jean-August
(1811-1896)RealismFrench sculptor (Paris)
BARRE, Jean-Jacques
(1793-1855)RomanticismFrench sculptor (Paris)
BARRERA, Francisco
(1595-1658)BaroqueSpanish painter (Madrid)
Barry James  (1741-1806). Irish history and portrait painter. Patronized by Burke, he studied in Italy and in 1 782 became a professor at the R.A. He was expelled in 1799 for attacks on other members and on the memory of Reynolds, and died destitute.
Bartlett Bo(b. December 29, 1955 in Columbus, Georgia) is an American realist painter currently residing on Vashon Island in Washington State.
Bo Bartlett was born on December 29, 1955 in Columbus, Georgia. At the age of 19 he traveled to Florence, Italy where he studied under Ben Long. In 1975 he returned to the United states, where he studied at the University of the Arts in Philadelphia, and then the Pennsylvania Academy of Fine Arts. He also studied anatomy at the Philadelphia College of Osteopathic Medicine. During his time in Pennsylvania, Bartlett apprenticed under Nelson Shanks. Bartlett then went on to study liberal arts at the University of Pennsylvania from 1980 to 1981. In 1986, Bartlett received a Certificate in Filmmaking from New York University. This led him to embark upon the 5 year process of creating a film in collaboration with Betsy Wyeth on the life and works of her husband, Andrew Wyeth. The film, entitled Snow Hill, began Bartlett's relationship with Wyeth as an artistic mentor and life-long friend. Bo Bartlett currently lives and paints on an island off the coast of Maine in summer, and on an island in the Puget Sound in Washington through the winter. He is married to artist Betsy Eby.
Bo Bartlett is an American realist with a modernist vision. His paintings are within the tradition of American realism as defined by artists such as Thomas Eakins and Andrew Wyeth. Like these artists, Bartlett looks at America's land and people to describe the beauty he finds in everyday life. His paintings celebrate the underlying epic nature of the commonplace and the personal significance of the extraordinary. Bartlett was educated at the Pennsylvania Academy of Fine Arts, where realist principles must be grasped before modernist ventures are encouraged. He pushes the boundaries of the realist tradition with his multilayered imagery. Life, death, passage, memory, and confrontation coexist easily in his world. Family and friends are the cast of characters that appear in his dreamlike narrative works. Although the scenes are set around his childhood home in Georgia, his island summer home in Maine, his home in Pennsylvania or the surroundings of his studio and residence in Washington State, they represent a deeper, mythical concept of the archetypal, universal home. His work can be found in private collections, public collections, and galleries throughout the United States.
Bartlett Jennifer (1941- ). U.S. artist who in her most prominent work from the late 1960S used the serial structure as her main theme (e.g. Rhapsody, 1975-6, which consisted of 988 enamel-011-steel plates assembled and mounted on a wall, combining abstraction with decoration, each panel painted in a different style and with different imagery). B.'s later works show the utilization of drawing, often on a large scale, with charcoal, crayon, pencil, pen and brush, watercolour, pastel and gouache, e.g. In the Garden (1981). She painted the murals Atlantic Ocean and Pacific Ocean (1984) for the staff dining room of Philip Johnson's AT & T headquarters in N.Y. and was given other large-scale commissions, e.g. Volvo headquarters in Sweden. B.'s most recent work has been constructions which relate to and echo paintings, placed on the floor beneath them, e.g. 'Luxembourg Gardens' series (1988).
Bartolo, Taddeo di. *Taddeo di Bartolo

BARTOLINI, Lorenzo
(1777-1850)NeoclassicismItalian sculptor
BARTOLO DI FREDI
(c. 1330-c. 1410)MedievalItalian painter (Siena) Bartolo di Fredi (c. 1330-1410). Sienese painter, pupil of A. Lorenzetti. His best 2 fresco cycles are at S. Gnnignano, one dealing with Old Testament subjects in the Collegiata (1356) and one in the church of S. Agostino on the birth and death of the Virgin (1366).
BARTOLOMEO DELLA GATTA
(1448-1502)Early RenaissanceItalian painter (Florence)
BARTOLOMEO DI GIOVANNI
(active 1480-1510)Early RenaissanceItalian painter (Florence) Bartolommeo di Giovanni. Bartolomeo di Giovanni, also known as Bartolommeo di Giovanni and as Alunno di Domenico, was an early renaissance Italian painter of the Florentine School who was active from about 1480 until his death in 1501. He studied with and assisted Domenico Ghirlandaio, painting the predella of Ghirlandaio's Adoration of the Magi in the Ospedale degli Innocenti (Foundling Hospital) in Florence, in 1488. Bartolomeo di Giovanni also worked under the guidance of Sandro Botticelli. This painter should not be confused with either the Italian sculptor and architect, Bartolomeo di Giovanni d'Astore Sinibaldi (1469-1535), or with the Italian painter and architect, Bartolommeo di Giovanni Corradini (active mid-15th century).
BARTOLOMEO VENETO
(active 1502-1531)High RenaissanceItalian painter (Venice)
BARTOLOMEO, Fra
(1473-1517)High RenaissanceItalian painter Bartolommeo Fra(1472—1517). Florentine painter and draughtsman. As student under Oosimo Rosselh he met M. Albertmelli with whom he later often collaborated. B. early inclined to mysticism and, impelled by the preaching of Savonarola, publicly burnt many of his paintings. In 1 500 he entered the monastery of S. Marco. He resumed painting in 1504, becoming a close friend of Raphael. He worked in Venice (1507), then with Albertinelh in Florence (r. 1509-12); he then went to Rome. Here he was so overwhelmed by Michelangelo's and Raphael's work in the Vatican that he refused all entreaties to collaborate. B.'s work is distinguished by complex yet controlled composition and by his refined and delicate draughtsmanship and use of colour. One of his finest works is 'The Virgin Adoring the Child with St Joseph. Late in life he lost something of his delicacy of treatment.
BARTOLOMMEO LANDI, Neroccio di (see NEROCCIO DE' LANDI)
(1445-1500)Early RenaissanceItalian painter (Siena)
BARTOLOZZI, Francesco
(1727-1815)RococoItalian graphic artist (London) Bartolozzi Francesco (1728-1815). Italian mezzotint engraver, miniaturist and draughtsman who settled in Britain (1764) and was a founder-member of the R.A. In 1802 he became head of a school for engravers in Lisbon. Through mastery of stipple and crayon and allied techniques B. achieved great softness and luminosity of effect; this together with his elegant tenderness assured him great popularity.
BARYE, Antoine-Louis
(1796-1875)RomanticismFrench sculptor
BASAITI, Marco
(active 1496-1530)High RenaissanceItalian painter (Venice)
BASCHENIS, Evaristo
(1617-1677)BaroqueItalian painter (Bergamo) Baschenis Evaristo. (b Bergamo, 7 Dec 1617; d Bergamo, 16 March 1677). Italian painter. He came from a family of painters originally from Averara, Lombardy, but with different branches active in the provinces of Bergamo and Trentino, mostly specializing in fresco decoration of churches. He probably started working within the same regional tradition but soon came to specialize in still-lifes and moved beyond his family’s limited and provincial style to create a richer and more complex art.
Baselitz  Georg (1938— ). German artist, one of the leading painters of the *Neo-Expressionist movement who were intent on reviving figurative painting on a monumental scale. Since 1967 B.'s characteristic style relies on painting his images upside down.
Basket Maker. N. American, one of the Indian Anasazi group. Besides the woven containers from which the name is derived, it produced small stone sculptures of wild life. Strikingly compact m form, they are probably the first stone carvings done in the south-west.
Baskin Leonard (1922—2000). U.S. figurative sculptor, print maker and teacher. He saw the artist's role as a moral one and his principal theme was the 'landscape of death' that modern man has created. Works include massive figures m stone, wood or bronze such as The Great Dead Man (1956). Fie has collaborated in an illustrative capacity with the poet led Hughes.
Basquiat Jean-Michel (1960-88). U.S. painter of Haitian and Puerto Rican parentage who first started making *graffiti with magic-markers on walls of buildings together with a friend, which they signed SAMO. B. also made drawings on paper, painted on T-shirts, sheet metal and other found surfaces and made *assemblages out of junk. His work quickly became sought-after by influential critics, collectors and artists. By the early 1980s B.'s crayon-and-paint drawings on unprimed canvas, with grimacing African mask-like faces and graffiti messages and texts, led to his enormous success. He collaborated with *Warhol. who had befriended him, in paintings and exhibitions. He died from a heroin overdose,
BASSA, Arnau
(active second half 14th cent.)MedievalCatalan painter (Barcelona)
BASSA, Ferrer
(active 1324-1348)MedievalCatalan painter (Barcelona) Bassa Ferrer(c 1290-after 1348). Painter of the Catalan school and 1st major painter of Spam. Until the early 20th c. the only records of him were in the criminal records of the kingdom of Aragon (for rape and other offences). The fresco series in the Franciscan convent at Predalbes (painted 1345/6) is now known to be by him. It shows that B. knew the work of the Sienese school, particularly that of *Martini.
Bassano. Family of Venetian painters working in Bassano. Jacopo (or Giaconio) da Ponte (1510-1592) first worked under his father, the painter Francesco the Elder (1475-1539). then studied m Venice. About 1530 he returned to Bassano where some of his finest work was done. His portraits and biblical subjects are notable for their realistic landscape settings, which include animals and details of peasant life, and for their colour, in fluenced by Titian. The best known of his 4 sons are Francesco the Younger (1549-92) and Leandro (1557-1622) whose work closely followed that of their father. Many paintings attributed to Jacopo are the work of his sons.
BASSANO, Francesco
(1549-1592)MannerismItalian painter (Venice)
BASSANO, Jacopo
(c. 1515-1592)MannerismItalian painter (Venice) Bassano Jacopo(1510-1592). Son of Francesco Bassano il vecchio. He was apprenticed to his father, with whom he collaborated on the Nativity (1528; Valstagna, Vicenza, parish church). In the first half of the 1530s Jacopo trained in Venice with Bonifazio de’ Pitati, whose influence, with echoes of Titian, is evident in the Flight into Egypt (1534; Bassano del Grappa, Mus. Civ.). He continued to work in the family shop until his father’s death in 1539. His paintings from those years were mainly altarpieces for local churches; many show signs of collaboration. He also worked on public commissions, such as the three canvases on biblical subjects (1535–6; Bassano del Grappa, Mus. Civ.) for the Palazzo Communale, Bassano del Grappa, in which the narrative schemes learnt from Bonifazio are combined with a new naturalism. From 1535 he concentrated on fresco painting, executing, for example, the interior and exterior decoration (1536–7) of S Lucia di Tezze, Vicenza, which demonstrates the maturity of his technique.
BASSANO, Leandro
(1557-1622)BaroqueItalian painter (Venice)
BASSEN, Bartholomeus van
(c. 1590-1652)BaroqueDutch painter (The Hague)
BASSETTI, Marcantonio
(1588-1630)BaroqueItalian painter (Verona)
BASTIANI, Lazzaro
(c. 1430-c. 1512)Early RenaissanceItalian painter (Venice)
Bastien-Lepage Jules (1848-84). French painter remembered for his peasant genre scenes such as The Hayfield. Although his technique was affected by Impressionism, the sentiment of his work was in the tradition of G. Courbet and J.-F. Millet.
Bataille Nicolas de. Tapestries
Batoni Pompeo Girolamo (1708-87). Italian painter, with A. R. Mengs the leading painter in Rome in the mid-19th c. His main output was portraits of travelling foreigners (particularly Englishmen on the Grand Tour) whom he often set in front of classical monuments, but he also painted many religious, historical and mythological subjects. He was ennobled by Maria Therese for his double portrait of the emperor Joseph II and the future Leopold II at their meeting in Rome (1769).
Bauchant Andre (1873—1958). French 'primitive' painter commissioned by Diaghilev to design the decor for Stravinsky's Apollon-Musagete (1928). He was originally a gardener but began to draw while a full-time painter in the early 1920s. He first chose historical subjects but later painted genre scenes, landscapes and sensitive flower-pieces.
BATONI, Pompeo
(1708-1787)RococoItalian painter (Rome)
BATTEM, Gerrit van
(c. 1636-1684)BaroqueDutch painter
Baudelaire Charles-Pierre (1821—67). French poet and critic. His book of poems Les Flairs du mal, 1857, was a landmark in introducing the modernist sensibility through its Romantic realism and freedom from conventional literary tradition. It was attacked on grounds of immorality, and in his lifetime B. did not receive the recognition he deserved. Besides his poetry, he wrote much influential criticism of literature, painting and music. He was a passionate admirer of Poe and De Quincey and trs. some of their works. B. had a Romantic view of the poet as an exceptional being born to exemplary suffering, but his verse has a density and power rarely found m his Romantic predecessors, I.es Vleurs du null can be read as a history of the human soul, oscillating between extremes of horror and delight ('I'horrair de la vie, I'extase de la vie"). B. interprets both nature and man's creation — i.e. towns and works of art — as patterns of interlocking symbols. In this he was no doubt influenced by his reading of Swedenborg, and he was one of the originators of the literary movement later to be known as *Symbolism. It has been argued that Les l'lcurs du tual is a carefully constructed whole, and that B. intended a final version of the cycle. His work includes private diaries. (Mon aeur mis a  nu), a vol. of prose poems, and many critical articles coll. m Curiositcs csthetiques (publ. posth. 1868) and IL'Art roniantique (publ. posth. 1868).
Baudry Paul (Jacques Aime) (1828-86). French painter known for his mural decorations, particularly those in the Opera, Pans.
Baumeister Willi(1889—1955). German abstract painter and creator of murals. B. studied in Stuttgart under A. Holzel; he visited Paris in 1912, 1914 and in 1924 when he met F. Leger, and took a teaching post in Frankfurt from 1928 to 1933. B. publ. his theories of art in Deis Ihibekannte in der Kuusl (1947).
Baumgarten Lothar(1944— ). German artist who studied at the Dusseldorf Kunstakademie where he came into contact with *Beuys. Since the late 1960s, he has been interested in anthropology. In his work he addresses the opposition between nature and culture, and the colonial impact on the native people and the environment in South and North American Indian societies, e.g. Terra Incognita (1969) and in Dorado-Gran Sabana (1977—85). B. uses installations, books and photographs as his media. Names of, for instance, the Indian populations of South America, names of indigenous annuals or of North American native nations have been said 'to constitute the primary medium of his work', as in his site-specific Installation AMERICA Invention (1988-93) at the Guggenheim Museum, N.Y., which transformed Frank Lloyd Wright's entire spiral atrium into a single work of art with inscriptions of the names of native societies in the Americas.
Bayer Herbert (1900-85). Austrian-born painter and graphic artist; he trained and taught at the *Bauhaus (1921—8). His works include *photomontages, posters, e.g. for the German Werkbund Exhibition, Paris (1930), and advertising. From 1938 he worked in the U.S.A. and helped introduce Bauhaus principles.
BAUDUINS, Adriaen Frans (see BOUDEWIJNS, Adriaen Frans)
(1644-1711)BaroqueFlemish painter
BAUGIN, Lubin
(c. 1610-1663)BaroqueFrench painter (Paris)
BAURSCHEIT, Jan Peter van, the Elder
(1669-1728)BaroqueFlemish sculptor
BAYEU Y SUBIAS, Francisco
(1734-1795)RococoSpanish painter (Madrid) Bayeu Francisco (1734-95). Spanish Neoclassical painter, particularly of frescoes, who worked under R. Mengs in the decoration of the Royal Palace at Madrid; he succeeded Mengs (1777) as director of the royal tapestry workshops. His brother-in-law and pupil was Goya, who painted his portrait.
BAYEU Y SUBIAS, Ramón
(1746-1793)RococoSpanish painter (Madrid)
Bayros Franz von  (1866-1924) was an Austrian commercial artist, illustrator, and painter best known for his controversial "Tales at the Dressing Table" portfolio.
Franz von Bayros (also Marquis de Bayros) was born on May 28, 1866, in Zagreb, in present-day Croatia. He may be one of the most fascinating drawers and designers of fin de siècle Austria. At the age 17, Bayros passed the entrance exam for the Vienna Academy with Eduard von Engerth. Bayros mixed in elegant society and soon belonged to the circle of friends of Johann Straub, whose step daughter Alice he married on 1896. The next year, Bayros moved to Munich. In 1904, Bayros gave his first exhibition in Munich, which was a great success. From 1904 until 1908, Bayros traveled to Paris and Italy for his studies. Returning Vienna, he felt himself a stranger. The outbreak of the First World War was yet another setback for Bayros. The artist died on April 2, 1924 from a cerebral hemorrhage.
Bazille Frederic (1841—70). Early French Impressionist painter. While a pupil of Marc Glcyre he met Renoir (with whom he shared a studio), Monet and Sisley, and through them Manet. B. painted out of doors and was interested in the correlation between flesh tints and landscape tones. He was a painter of great promise but was killed in action in the Franco-Prussian War.
Baziotes William (1912-63). U.S. *Ahstract Expressionist painter of the *New York School. He was influenced by Surrealist theories on * Automatism and the subconscious; his paintings are brooding, mysterious abstract images in subtle, often muted colours. They include: Dwarf (1947); Night Landscape (1947) and Congo (1954).
BAZZANI, Giuseppe
(1690-1769)BaroqueItalian painter (Mantua)
BAZZI, Giovanni Antonio (see SODOMA, Il)
(1477-1549)High RenaissanceItalian painter (Siena)
Bearden Romare (1914—88). U.S. African-American painter of dazzling technical facility, who used *Cubist, *collage and *photomontage techniques late in his career, e.g. 'Projections' series (1964). Outspoken about the status of African-American artists, he wrote and lectured extensively about black artists.
Beardsley AubreyVincent (1872—98). British artist in black and white whose work epitomized the 'decadence' of the 1890s. His ills for J. M. Dent's ed. of Morte d'Arthur (1892) are strongly influenced by Burne-Jones. In 1893, work of his, showing Japanese influences, was publ. m The Studio (the 1st*Art Notiveati magazine). In 1894 B. ill. Oscar Wilde's English trs. of Salome and became art ed. of  The * Yellow Book, but following Wilde's fall in 1895 B. had to resign. In 1896 he became ed. of the new magazine The Savoy, in which his ills of Pope's 'I he Rape of the Lock and of his own fragment Under the Hill appeared. In these, the stark black and white masses arc broken down and the effect shows B.'s interest in 18th-c. French illustration. In 1896 began the final onset of his tuberculosis and in 1897 B. went to Mentone, where he died.
BEATRIZET, Nicolas
(1507-1565)High RenaissanceFrench graphic artist (Rome)
BEAUBRUN, Charles
(1604-1692)BaroqueFrench painter (Paris)
BEAUFORT, Jacques-Antoine
(1721-1784)NeoclassicismFrench painter
BEAUNEVEU, André
(c. 1330-1402)MedievalFrench illuminator
BECCAFUMI, Domenico
(c. 1486-1551)High RenaissanceItalian painter (Siena) Beccafumi Domenico called 'II Mecarino', Domenico di Pace (c 1485-1551). Sienese painter, took his patron's name, B., and studied under Mecarino. His masterpiece is the mosaic for S. Bernardino church, Siena. He also worked in Pisa and Genoa. His delicate early style, typical of the Sienese school, shows, m its compositional coherence, the influence of Raphael; it derived vigour and boldness from B.'s study of Michelangelo.
BECCARUZZI, Francesco
(c. 1492-before 1563)High RenaissanceItalian painter (Conegliano)
Charles Becker. Magic realism.
Beckmann Max (1884-1950). German painter, lithographer and woodcut artist and one of the greatest 20th-c. figure painters. In World War I he served in a medical corps but was released following a nervous breakdown. A teacher at Frankfurt school of art (1915-33) he was dismissed by the Nazi regime and settled in Amsterdam in 1937 moving to the U.S.A. in 1947. He is identifiable with no one school but his army experiences radically affected him and his work passed through a period of Expressionistie distortion and *New Objectivity realism, using scenes from everyday life for subjects. B. left a large series of self-portraits.
BEDOLA, Girolamo (see MAZZOLA BEDOLI, Girolamo)
(1500-c. 1569)MannerismItalian painter (Parma)
BEECKMAN, Andries
(active 1651-57)BaroqueDutch painter
Beechey Sir William (1753-1839). British portrait painter. In 1793 he became official portrait painter to George Ill's queen, Charlotte.
Bega Cornelis (1620—64). Dutch painter. He was the pupil of Adriaen van Ostade and painted the same kind of peasant genre scenes, but his work is far inferior.

Beham Hans Sebald (1500-50). This German etcher, engraver, painter and woodcut artist produced over 1000 book ills. His work is distinguished by force and restraint of expression as well as technical mastery whether on copper or wood. Very few of his paintings are known. His brother, Barthel (1502-40), for a time painter to the Bavarian court at Munich, in 1535 moved to Italy where he died. His paintings at Munich include the Miracle of the Cross (1530). He also left engravings.
Beksinski Zdzislaw  (1929 – 2005) was a renowned Polish painter, photographer, and fantasy artist.
BEER, Jan de
(c. 1475-c. 1528)Northern RenaissanceFlemish painter (Antwerp) Beer Jan de (1475-1536). Flemish painter, one of the *Antwerp Mannerist school many of whose paintings were formerly ascribed to him.
BEERSTRATEN, Jan Abrahamsz.
(1622-1666)BaroqueFlemish painter (Amsterdam) Beerstraten. Name of 2 Flemish landscape painters. Anthonie (fl. 1639-65) painted mostly snow scenes somewhat similar to those of H. Avercamp; Jan Abrahamsz
(fl. 1622-66) used more conventional subject matter.
BEERT, Osias
(1580-1624)BaroqueFlemish painter (Antwerp)
BEGA, Cornelis
(c. 1620-1664)BaroqueDutch painter (Haarlem)
BEGARELLI, Antonio
(c. 1499-1565)High RenaissanceItalian sculptor (Modena)
BEGAS, Carl the Elder
(1794-1854)RomanticismGerman painter
BEGAS, Reinhold
(1831-1911)RealismGerman sculptor
BEGEYN, Abraham Jansz.
(1637-1697)BaroqueDutch painter
BEHAM, Barthel
(1502-1540)Northern RenaissanceGerman painter
BEHAM, Hans Sebald
(1500-1540)Northern RenaissanceGerman painter
BEKE, Joos van der (see CLEVE, Joos van)
(1485-1540)Northern RenaissanceFlemish painter (Antwerp)
BÉLANGER, François-Joseph
(1744-1818)NeoclassicismFrench architect (Paris)
BELIN DE FONTENAY, Jean-Baptiste
(1653-1715)BaroqueFrench painter (Paris)
BELLANGE, Jacques
(1594-1638)BaroqueFrench graphic artist
BELLANO, Bartolomeo
(1437-1496)Early RenaissanceItalian sculptor (Padua)
BELLE, Alexis-Simon
(1674-1734)BaroqueFrench painter (Paris)
BELLECHOSE, Henri
(active 1415- 1440)Northern RenaissanceFrench painter (Burgundy) Belechose Henri  (fl 1415; d before 28 Jan 1445). South Netherlandish painter. He was one of the artists who came from the South Netherlands to work for the French royal family. On 23 May 1415 he succeeded Jean Malouel as court painter and Valet de Chambre to John the Fearless, Duke of Burgundy, in Dijon, and he may already have been connected with Malouel’s workshop. On 5 November 1415 Bellechose was paid for painting four small wooden pillars with angels, which were placed around the high altar of Notre-Dame, Dijon. On 19 May 1416 the duke authorized the purchase of materials for Bellechose to complete two panels, one of the Martyrdom of St Denis and another showing the Death of the Virgin, for the Charterhouse of Champmol. Bellechose also carried out decorative work, including painting banners for the Duke’s castle of Talant near Dijon in 1416 and coats of arms for the funeral of John the Fearless in 1419. On 5 April 1420 Bellechose was appointed court painter to Philip the Good, successor to John the Fearless. His first known commissions were again of a decorative nature, including work for the funerals of Margaret of Bavaria, wife of John the Fearless, in 1423 and of Catherine of Burgundy, daughter of an earlier Duke of Burgundy, Philip the Bold, in 1425 and for the marriage of Philip the Good’s sister Agnes of Burgundy in 1424. During these years he had eight assistants and two apprentices; travelling artists, including some from German territory, also worked in his shop on a temporary basis. Around this time he married Alixant Lebon, daughter of a Dijon notary. On 21 November 1425 Philip the Good ordered an altarpiece of the Virgin venerated by John the Fearless and Philip the Good, accompanied by SS John the Evangelist and Claude, for the chapel of the castle at Saulx-le-Duc in Burgundy. Bellechose painted three statues for the new entrance gate to the palace in Dijon in 1426. In August 1429 he received an important commission for St Michel, Dijon, to make an altarpiece with Christ and the Twelve Apostles and an antependium showing the Annunciation. Exactly a year later his name appears for the last time in the ducal accounts. The salary of the artist had decreased by two thirds since 1426 and from 1429 he was not paid at all. The fact that Philip the Good moved the centre of his administration to the Netherlands and enlisted the services of Jan van Eyck considerably diminished the prestige of Dijon and the artists who worked there. Bellechose was still alive in 1440, though absent from Dijon.
Bellange Jacques(b ?Bassigny, c. 1575; d Nancy, 1616). French painter, etcher and draughtsman. His known artistic activity dates only from 1602 to 1616 and he is now familiar chiefly for his etchings and drawings, all his decorative works and most of his paintings having perished. His highly idiosyncratic style was inspired by such Italian artists as Parmigianino, by the School of Fontainebleau and by northern artists including Albrecht Dürer and Bartholomeus Spranger. His work would seem to express a private and nervous religious sensibility through a style of the greatest refinement. It is among the latest and most extreme expressions of Mannerism. He was influential on other Lorraine artists: Claude Déruet was his pupil, as, perhaps, was Georges de La Tour.

 
 

BELLEGAMBE, Jean
(c. 1470 - c. 1535)Northern RenaissanceFlemish painter (Amiens) Bellegambe Jean (r. 1480-c 1535). Flemish painter of altarpieces, known as 'the master of colour', working m Amiens. He was influenced by Italian painting in such works as the polyptych.
Bellini. Family of Italian painters, Jacopo and his sons Gentile and Giovanni, who created the Venetian school of the Renaissance.
BELLINI, Gentile
(c. 1429-1507)Early RenaissanceItalian painter (Venice) Bellini Gentile (c. 1429-1507). Italian painter famous for his narrative works in the seuole (confraternities) of Venice, e.g. the Procession of the Relic of the Cross in the Piazza of San Marco (1496), and for his portraits. He was chosen to paint the Sultan Mohammed II in Constantinople (c. 1480). In his works austere draughtsmanship and architectural composition are combined with rich colouring.
BELLINI, Giovanni
(c. 1426-1516)Early RenaissanceItalian painter (Venice) Bellini Giovanni (c 1430-1516). Pupil of his father ami first collaborated with him and Gentile on the great decorative works for the scnole (Gentile *B.), now destroyed. Flavmg no interest in classical subjects, which were becoming popular, he chose predominantly religious themes, which he treated with much of the devotional restraint of earlier painters. Nevertheless, by adopting the technique of oil glazing and gradually abandoning the linear conception of form he revolutionized Venetian painting and substantially affected the future course of European painting through his most famous pupils, Giorgione and Titian. He was slow to find his own style and never ceased to develop it. In Padua (1458—60) he was strongly influenced by Mantegna, though his work was never as sculptural or severe as Mantegna's, e.g. their respective treatments of The Agony in the Garden, both based on a sketch by Jacopo B. B.'s version has a naturalistic landscape background (one of the earliest examples of landscape painting); it illustrates his ability to create a lyrical affinity between his figures and their settings. Other early works probably done at this time include several madonnas and pietas. These madonnas have the serenity, tenderness and individuality typical of his later work; the suffusion of light and the presentation of half-length figures are also characteristic of his style. B. returned to Venice in 1460. 4 triptychs (1460—1) for the Canta church were his 1st major undertaking and these were followed by the Alltirpivcc with St Vincent h'crrar (1464), for the church of SS Giovanni e Paolo, notable for the differences in style between the panels. In 1470 he was working on the decoration of the Scuola Grande di S. Marco with Gentile and visited Rimini and Pesaro. There he saw oil paintings by Rogier van der Weyden, which impressed him by their realism and tonal variations. He himself learnt the Flemish technique of oil glazing from Antonella da Messina in 1475, and his Resurrection (1475/6) was the 1st Venetian painting executed m glazes of pure oil paint. He had been using a mixture of oil and tempera in Rimini while the brushwork of the Pieta with St John is typical of that used with oil. His work gradually lost its sharp contours, expressing form by a developing richness and variety of tone and colour, e.g. the altarpiece from S. Giobbe The Virgin and Child with Saints and an Orchestra of Angels. This style was more fully exploited by Titian. Much of 13.'s time after 1497 was occupied in restoring the frescoes of the hall of the great council in the Doge's Palace, Venice, a work begun by Gentile. Among B.'s portraits is the famous Doge Leonardo Loredan (c. 1501). He painted few mythological subjects, but the best known, The Veast of the Cods (c. 1514), painted for the camerino or study of Alfonso d'Este of Ferrara, was unusual for its time in its representation of deities as ordinary people, possibly members of the court of Ferrara. Titian, who completed the decoration of the room, repainted the landscape background of this picture and made minor alterations to the figures, though retaining B.'s composition.
BELLINI, Jacopo
(c. 1400-1470)Early RenaissanceItalian painter (Venice) Bellini Jacopo(c. 1400—70). Follower of A. Pisanello and Gentile da Fabriano. His rare extant paintings show him to have been competent rather than outstanding, and his importance lies in his interest in the return to antiquity and the new scientific approach to the subjects of painting. Two valuable sketchbooks of his exist. Many of these sketches, which include figure studies for larger compositions and show an interest in landscape, architectural design and the problems of perspective, were used by his sons and his son-in-law Mantegna.
Bellmer Hans (1902-75). Polish-born artist living in Germany and, from 1938, Paris, where he joined the Surrealists. In 1933 he made Doll, an articulated life-size female nude which he photographed in erotic poses. Technically refined drawings and graphics, e.g. Le Bon sens (1964), continued B.'s obsessive exploration of the female body.
Bellori Giovanni Pietro (1615-96). Italian collector, antiquarian and writer of seminal work on art, Vile de' pittori, scultori ct architetti moderni, 1672, on which he was assisted by Poussin and which is the basic source for the history of the *Baroque. In it he puts forward a rationalist Platomsm and the antique as a model for value judgment. This book exercised great influence on French academic theory and the Royal Academy, and it became the theoretical foundation of *Neoclassicism as developed by *Winckelmann.
 
Bellows George (1882—1925). U.S. painter of portraits, landscapes and urban life. He studied under Robert Henri (1865-1929). His work provided a comment on contemporary U.S. life, from which he drew his subjects with uncompromising realism. His series of 6 prizefight paintings (1909) demonstrate his natural dashing style, which he later subjected to the theory of 'dynamic symmetry' to give a formal balance to his compositions. He turned with great success to lithography, e.g. a war series (1918), and book ill.
Benglis Lynda (1941- ). U.S. artist who uses a wide range of materials (paint, wax, latex, plaster, fabric, rubber, polyurethane foam, etc.) in works which defy distinction between painting and sculpture. B. is concerned with colour (e.g. vibrant Day-Glo, fluorescent pink and blue, etc.) and large-scale organic forms in space, which she has called 'frozen gestures', e.g. 'Adhesive Products' series (1971) and The Wave (1984). A dedicated feminist, she has also made videos focusing on female sexuality.
Benois Alexandre (1870-1960). Russian painter and theatrical designer, the founder of the St Petersburg *World of Art movement. B. belonged to a very cosmopolitan and cultured family, as did most of his friends; this many-streamed culture bridged the gap isolating Russia from the rest of Europe after the 19th-c. nationalist *Wanderers. From B. came the interest in ballet, to which he introduced Diaghilev, a member of the group.
 
BELLOTTO, Bernardo
(1720-1780)RococoItalian painter Bellotto Bernardo (1720-80). Italian landscape and townscape painter, also called Canalctto, whose nephew and pupil he was and whose style and name he adopted. In 1747 B. went to Dresden, where he became painter to the electoral court. In 1767 he settled in Warsaw, working for the Polish king until his death. His views of Warsaw are so exact that they were used when the city was reconstructed after World War II.
BELLUCCI, Antonio
(1654-1726)BaroqueItalian painter
BELVEDERE, Andrea
(1652-1732)BaroqueItalian painter (Naples)
BEMBO, Bonifazio
(active1444-1477)Early RenaissanceItalian painter (Cremona)
BENAGLIO, Francesco
(c. 1430-c. 1492)Early RenaissanceItalian painter (Verona)
BENALIUS, Francesco (see BENAGLIO, Francesco)
(c. 1430-c. 1492)Early RenaissanceItalian painter (Verona)
BENEDETTI, Andrea (see BENEDETTI, Andries)
(c. 1615-after 1649)BaroqueItalian painter
BENEDETTI, Andries
(c. 1615-after 1649)BaroqueItalian painter
BENEDETTO DA MAIANO
(1442-1497)Early RenaissanceItalian sculptor (Florence) Benedetto da Maiano(1442-97). Florentine sculptor prominent for his reliefs which belong to the same traditions as those by *Ghiberti and *Donatello.
BENING, Simon
(1483-1561)Northern RenaissanceFlemish illuminator
BENOIST, Marie-Guillemine
(1768-1826)RomanticismFrench painter (Paris)
BENOUVILLE, François-Léon
(1821-1859)RomanticismFrench painter (Paris)
BENSON, Ambrosius
(c. 1484-1550)Northern RenaissanceFlemish painter (Bruges) Benson Ambrosius (d. 1550). Lombard painter who settled in Bruges (1519) and painted in a Flemish style particularly reflecting the influence of G. *David. There are many of his pictures in Spain and he was formerly known as the 'Master of Segovia'.
 

BENSON, Willem
(c. 1521-1574)Northern RenaissanceFlemish painter (Bruges)
Benton Thomas Hart (1889—1975). U.S. Regionalist painter who was one of the most voluble of those protesting against European Modernism and its followers in U.S. art. Roasting liars and Cattle Loading, West Texas (1950) are typical in portraying U.S. rural scenes. He became famous for his 1930s murals, e.g. at The New School for Social Research, N.Y., and for the Missouri State Capitol.
BENVENUTI, Giovanni Battista (see ORTOLANO)
(c. 1487-after 1524)High RenaissanceItalian painter (Ferrara)
BENVENUTO DI GIOVANNI
(1436-after 1518)Early RenaissanceItalian painter (Siena)
BENVENUTO di Giovanni di Meo del Guasta (see BENVENUTO DI GIOVANNI)
(1436-after 1518)Early RenaissanceItalian painter (Siena)
BENZONE, Ambrogio (see BENSON, Ambrosius)
(c. 1484-1550)Northern RenaissanceFlemish painter (Bruges)
BERCH, Gillis Gillisz. de (see BERGH, Gillis Gillisz. de)
(c. 1600-1669)BaroqueDutch painter (Delft)
BERCHEM, Nicolaes (Claesz.)
(1620-1683)BaroqueDutch painter (Haarlem) Berchem (Berghem) Nicolaes Nicolaes Pieterszoon Berchem (1620-83). Dutch Italianate painter. He toured Italy c. 1642—5 and thereafter his best pictures were of Arcadian landscapes, delicately painted and suffused with light after the manner of *Olaude Lorraine. He was sometimes employed by Van *Ruisdael and *Hobbema to animate then-landscapes.
BERCKENRODE, Balthasar Florisz. van
(c. 1591-c. 1645)BaroqueDutch graphic artist (Delft)
BERCKHEYDE, Gerrit Adriaensz.
(1638-1698)BaroqueDutch painter (Haarlem)
BERCKHEYDE, Job Adriaensz
(1630-1693)BaroqueDutch painter (Haarlem) Berckheyde Job(1630-93). Dutch painter of townscape. He was a more powerful colourist than his brother Gerrit.

Berenson Bernard (1865-1959). U.S. art critic, historian and art dealer; art adviser to the dealer Joseph Duveen. B.'s many works on the history and aesthetics of Italian painting, especially his The Italian Painters of the Renaissance (1952; first publ. as individual essays, 1894-1907), gained him a following as an expert on art and culture. Other important works are Drawings of the Florentine Painters (1903 and 1938) and Aesthetics and History in the Visual Arts (1948).
BERENTZ, Christian
(1658-1722)BaroqueGerman painter (Rome)
BERGEN, Dirk van
(c. 1645-c. 1690)BaroqueDutch painter
BERGERET, Pierre-Nolasque
(1782-1863)NeoclassicismFrench painter (Paris)
BERGH, Gillis Gillisz. de
(c. 1600-1669)BaroqueDutch painter (Delft)
Bergt Michael. Fantastic art.
BERGOGNONE, Ambrogio
(c. 1453-1523)High RenaissanceItalian painter (Lombardy) Bergognone Ambrogio (Borgognone) Il (Ambrogio da Fossano) (fl. 1481 d. 1523). Italian painter of the Lombard school whose use of subdued and subtle colours led Berenson to nickname him the 'Whistler of the Renaissance'. He painted an altarpiece and frescoes for the convent of the Carthusians at Pavia (15 14) and frescoes in the church of S. Simpliciano, Milan.
BERJON, Antoine
(1754-1843)RomanticismFrench painter
BERLINGHIERI, Bonaventura
(active 1230s)MedievalItalian painter (Lucca)
Berman Wallace(1926 - 1976) was an American West Coast visual /assemblage artist. Wallace Berman was born in Staten Island, New York and moved with his family to Los Angeles, California in 1930. He was expelled from high school for gambling, and became involved in the world of jazz. He enrolled in and attended the Jepson Art School and Chouinard but did not complete studies there. Instead of pursuing a formal art 'career' he worked in a factory finishing antique furniture. This work gave him the opportunity to salvage reject materials and scraps which he used to make sculptures. He began a mail art publication called SEMINA The format was a letterpress text printed on an assemblage of colored paper, photos, and essentially found material. Contributors included John Altoon, Antonin Artaud, Charles Brittin, Charles Bukowski, William S. Burroughs, Jean Cocteau, Allen Ginsberg, Marion Grogan, Walter Hopps, Larry Jordan, Philip Lamantia, Michael McClure, David Meltzer, Stuart Perkoff, and John Weiners.He exhibited pieces in the Ferus Gallery in 1957, became part of the beat communities in Los Angeles and in San Francisco, and started the Semina Art Gallery in Larkspur, CA in 1960. He made his first and only film, Aleph, from 1956-1966. Berman did not give the film a title, referring to it just as 'my film' or 'my movie' and never showed it to large audiences, preferring to screen it on his studio wall on a one-to-one basis. The title Aleph was given to the work by Berman's son, Tosh, after the artist's death. He used verifax collages in his work, allowing for creation of serial and multiple images. From artist Ed Ruscha: "There were a lot of artists then that were doing serial imagery in that way, including Llyn Foulkes and Andy Warhol himself, of course, who really popularized it. I had done some things like that. It came about at a time where it had completely reached its time. It was inevitable, It's like a genealogy. I think it was about Wally- and even Andy of course, who came out of the commercial world - seeing not paintings in museums but more popular imagery." This development in the art world seems directly related to the growth of mass production, consumption, and mass disposal that the US embraced in the 1950s.
He was killed in an automoble crash with a drunk driver in Topanga Canyon in 1976.
BERMEJO, Bartolomé
(active 1474-1498)Early RenaissanceSpanish painter Bermejo Bartolome (ft. 1474-95). Spanish painter whose work shows Flemish influences; active in and around Barcelona. His masterpiece is a Pieta in Barcelona cathedral.
Bernard Emile (1868-1941). French painter and critic who claimed to have been the originator of the Cloissomste style used by Gauguin. He was a leader of the Symbolist movement in painting and in his later years worked for the revival of religious art. He was a friend and correspondent of Van Gogh and of Cezanne who wrote him the famous letter about treating nature 'by means of the cylinder, the sphere and the cone'.

BERNARD D'AGESCI
(1756-1829)RococoFrench painter (Niort)
BERNARD, Jean-Charles (see BERNARD D'AGESCI)
(1756-1829)RococoFrench painter (Niort)
BERNARDINO DA COTIGNOLA (see ZAGANELLI, Bernardino di Bosio)
(1460s-1510)Early RenaissanceItalian painter
BERNARDINO DI MARIOTTO DELLO STAGNO
(c. 1478-1566)High RenaissanceItalian painter (Perugia)
BERNERO, Giovanni Battista
(1736-1796)BaroqueItalian sculptor (Turin)
BERNINI, Gian Lorenzo
(1598-1680)BaroqueItalian sculptor (Rome) Bernini Gian Lorenzo (1598-1680). Italian sculptor and architect born at Naples; son of a Tuscan Mannerist sculptor who worked in Rome. B. was precociously skilful as a sculptor, and attracted the attention and patronage of Cardinal Scipione Borghese executing 4 groups for his garden, including Aeneas and Anchises (1618/19) and Apollo and Daphne (1622/4). During the pontificate of Urban VIII B. completed numerous large-scale commissions in and around St Peter's: the Baldacchino (1624-33), the Barbenm Palace (1625-33), the Cathedra Petri (1657—65) and his layout of the square and colonnades in front of the basilica, his grandest and subtlest architectural achievement. Also notable is his layout of the Piazza Navona and the fountain there, as well as churches (S. Andrea al Quirinale) and numerous other fountains. B. gave Rome its predominantly Baroque character.
He was a man of deep faith, and the supreme artist of the Catholic Counter-Reformation. Both as architect and sculptor he dazzled the 17th c, partly through genius and partly through skill in keeping rivals (e.g. Duquesnoy and Algardi) in the background. And this in spite of the tact that a tower which he built on the facade of St Peter's had to be rapidly demolished in 1646 when cracks appeared in the fabric of the church. In his series of portrait busts, of Cardinal Scipionc Borghese (1632), Duke Francis 1 d'Fste (1650/1), Constanza Bonarelli {c. 1635), Charles I (now lost) and many others, 15. revealed both his deep insight into character and his virtuosity of technique. In 1641 he made a bust of Cardinal Richelieu after the triple portrait by Philippe de Champaigne; this was so successful that he was invited to Paris to work for the king. He did not go until 1655. The only result of this visit was his superb bust of Louis XIV. At the height of his fame B. had prophesied the decline of his reputation, a decline that lasted until the present generation. Indeed during his lifetime an equestrian statue of Louis XIV, completed in 1673, was so disliked that it was altered by Girardon in 1688 into a park ornament. B.'s sculptural style evolved partly from Michelangelo and partly from the expressiveness of Caravaggio and Anmbale Carracci, whom he greatly admired. His emphasis on the unity of sculpture and its setting produced many fine tombs, in particular those of Pope Alexander VII (1671/8), with its marble draperies lifted by the skeleton figure of Death, and that of the Blessed Lodovica Albertoni (1671/4). The masterpiece of his religious sculpture, as well as the most brilliant example of his use of varied materials, is the Ecstasy of St Teresa (1645—52) in the Cornaro chapel in S. Maria della Vittoria, Rome. B.'s work freed sculpture from the classic concept of a block to be seen from one angle. The vitality of execution, as well as the restless poses of his works, at first demanded a multiple viewpoint, but this tension was often resolved into the clearcut energy and movement of such a group as Apollo and Daphne. The un-classical involvement of the spectator in his response to the vigour and emotion of such figures show how B. was the seminal genius (and largely the creator) of the Baroque style.
Berner Bernd  (b 1930)
Berni Antonio(Argentina, 1905-1981). Surrealism.
BERNINI, Pietro
(1562-1629)MannerismItalian sculptor (Rome)
BERRETTINI, Pietro (see PIETRO DA CORTONA)
(1596-1669)BaroqueItalian painter (Rome)
BERRUGUETE, Alonso
(1488-1561)High RenaissanceSpanish sculptor Berruguete Alonso(c. 1488-1561). The greatest Spanish sculptor of the 16th c. and also a painter, working mainly in Valladolid. He lived in Italy (f. 1504-c 1 5 17) studying above all Michelangelo's work, the influence of which is reflected in B.'s Resurrection carved in relief in alabaster for Valencia cathedral. Other major works are the altars for the monastery of La Mejorada (1526), now in Valladolid Mus., and for the church of S. Benito (1527-32), also at Valladolid, and the 36 choir stalls in wood (1539—43) for Toledo cathedral. B. was the 1st Spaniard to react strongly against the High Renaissance ideals of perfection of form. He was affected by Mannerism but used distortion or unbalanced composition to express the emotions of his mind or the agonies and ecstasies of the religious life.
BERRUGUETE, Pedro
(1450-1504)Early RenaissanceSpanish painter Berruguete Pedro (ft. 1438—1503/4). Castilian painter, father of Alonso. He worked in Avila, in Toledo cathedral and as court painter to Ferdinand and Isabella of Spam. A tradition that he studied in Urbino, Italy, is supported by the style of some of his pictures.
BERTHÉLEMY, Jean-Simon
(1743-1811)NeoclassicismFrench painter (Paris)
BERTIN, Jean-Victor
(1767-1842)NeoclassicismFrench painter (Paris)
BERTIN, Nicolas
(1668-1736)BaroqueFrench painter (Paris)
BERTOIA, Jacopo
(1544-1574)MannerismItalian painter (Parma)
BERTOLDO DI GIOVANNI
(c. 1420-1491)Early RenaissanceItalian sculptor (Florence)
Bertram of Munden. *Master Bertram of Munden.
Besnard (Paul) Albert (1849-1934). French painter trained under J. Bremond in the Romantic classicism of Ingres. From 1883 his work was influenced by the light and colour of the Impressionists. The intense colours of his pictures of India (1912) attracted wide attention. He also executed frescoes, pastels and etchings.
BERTRAND, Philippe
(1663-1724)BaroqueFrench sculptor
BETTO DI GERI
(active 1366–1402)MedievalItalian goldsmith (Florence)
BEUCKELAER, Joachim
(1530-1574)MannerismFlemish painter (Antwerp) Beuckelaer Joachim (c.1533—73). Flemish painter, most of whose career was spent as an assistant to other artists, e.g. A. Mor and possibly P. Aertsen, his uncle by marriage and also probably his master. B.'s few original pictures are mostly of market or kitchen scenes.
Beuys Joseph (1921—86). Germany's most influential post-war artist. An early interest in natural history, country lore and mythology left evident traces in his visionary and extremely diverse work: he was a Performance artist (How to Explain Pictures to a Dead Hare, 1965, Coyote, 1974), a sculptor (Fat Comer, 1964), lecturer, assembler of installations of gigantic scale (Tallow, 1077) and founder of Organization for Direct Democracy (1972), after becoming involved in the political arena. B. also made video art (Felt TV, 1968) and drawings. What characterized his work generally was a deep belief in the power of intuition as expressed in the parallel between the artist and the shaman: both invest simple materials with intense and potentially healing power (Show your wound, 1976).
BEVEREN, Mattheus van
(c. 1630-1690)BaroqueFlemish sculptor
BEVEROVICIUS (see BEVERWIJCK, Johan van)
(1594-1647)BaroqueDutch graphic artist (Dordrecht)
BEVERWIJCK, Johan van
(1594-1647)BaroqueDutch graphic artist (Dordrecht)
BEYEREN, Abraham van
(1620-1690)BaroqueDutch painter (The Hague) Beyeren, Abraham van (1620/1—90). Dutch painter who excelled in virtuoso and opulent still-hfes of hsh, Crustacea, banquet tables with fruit, silver and gold vessels, glass and sumptuous tablecloths.
BIAGIO D'ANTONIO
(1446-1515)Early RenaissanceItalian painter (Florence)
Biagio d'Antonio Tucci (see BIAGIO D'ANTONIO)
(1446-1515)Early RenaissanceItalian painter (Florence)
BIANCHI, Pietro
(1694-1740)BaroqueItalian painter (Rome)
BICCI DI LORENZO
(1373-1452)Early RenaissanceItalian painter (Florence)
BICCI DI NERI
(1419-1491)Early RenaissanceItalian painter (Florence)
BICCI, Lorenzo di
(c. 1350-c. 1427)Early RenaissanceItalian painter (Florence)
Bickerton Ashley (1959— ). U.S. artist born in Barbados. From his first one-man show in N.Y., 1986, he emerged as one of the most intelligent and successful post-*Neo-Expressiomst and earliest. Postmodernist U.S. artists of the younger generation. His wall-mounted boxes/containers are air-brushed with an industrial perfection and finish that gives them the look of commodity objects, affixed to the wall with metal brackets that project out. The subject matter of the works, however, often contradicts or modifies the commodity status and the appearance of the pieces with layers of references to the artist's personal engagement m art and in contextual issues, e.g. Bad (1988), Ciood (1989) and Hiofntginent # 2 (1990). In Solomon Island Shark and other recent work, B. has abandoned the previous slick forms of his objects: a totemic-looking life-size rubber shark, with modifications, hangs from a rope.
BIDAULD, Jean-Joseph-Xavier
(1758-1846)NeoclassicismFrench painter
Bierstadt Albert(1830—1902). U.S. landscape painter of German extraction. After study in Europe (1853—7) he joined a surveying
expedition of the Rocky Mountains (1858). From then on he painted large-scale pictures mostly of the Rockies and Far West, acquiring a fortune, a great reputation and decorations from several European states. His style reflects that of the German Romantics.

BIGARNY, Felipe
(c. 1470-1543)High RenaissanceSpanish sculptor
BIGHORDI, Domenico (see GHIRLANDAIO, Domenico)
(1449-1494)Early RenaissanceItalian painter (Florence)
BIGOT, Trophîme
(c. 1600-1650)BaroqueFrench painter (Arles)
BIJLERT, Jan van
(1597/98-1671)BaroqueDutch painter (Utrecht)
Bilibin Ivan (1876—1928). Russian book ill. B. belonged to The *World of Art group though his work, embedded in the I9th-c. Russian tradition, was notable for its incorporation of folk elements. In addition to his ills for Russian fairy-tales B. drew anti-Tsarist cartoons.
BILIVERT, Giovanni
(1576-1644)BaroqueItalian painter (Florence)
BIMBI, Bartolomeo
(1648-1730)BaroqueItalian painter (Florence)
BINGHAM, George Caleb
(1811-1879)RomanticismAmerican painter Bingham George Caleb (1811-79). U.S. painter. After a brief training at the Pennsylvania Academy of Fine Arts and travel in Europe and the U.S.A. he settled in his home state of Missouri. He painted scenes from frontier life, portraits of the wealthier Missouri citizens and many political subjects. He himself held state office.
Blackman Charles (1928- ). Australian painter. At first attracted by the Expressionist school at Melbourne, he was one of the new-humanist group of younger painters who turned to city life for subject matter.
BISSCHOP, Jan de
(1628-1671)BaroqueDutch graphic artist (The Hague)
BISSEN, Hermann Wilhelm
(1798-1868)RealismDanish sculptor
Blaine Mahlon"Nova Venus" (1894 - 1969) Mahlon Blaine was a twentieth century American artist who is remembered chiefly today for his brilliant illustrations to many books, both children's and adult. His mastery of line was, and remains, unique and masterful. Likened, rightfully, to Aubrey Beardsley, Blaine was another original mind, and his interest in portraying the animal nature of humanity lost him a wider audience. The only monograph on the artist so far published is The Art of Mahlon Blaine (Peregrine Books, 1982), and this wonderful book, which includes a deep insight into the artist by his colleague Gershon Legman, contains a good cross-section of Blaine's colour and b-&-w art and an excellent bibliography of Blaine books compiled by Roland Trenary. Many other books illustrated by Blaine turn up commonly in secondhand bookshops: his illustrated versions of Voltaire's Candide and Sterne's A Sentimental Journey are frequently encountered. These books are good examples of his work, but the enthusiast is advised to pursue the many other Blaine-illustrated books, especially the weird-fantastic fiction titles so perfectly-suited to his work.
Blair-Leighton Edmund(1853-1922). The Pre-Raphaelite.
Blake Peter (1932— ). British artist, a noted member of the *Pop art movement. He studied at the R.C.A.; his subjects are often taken from music-hall acts, wrestling matches, etc. (Drum ... etc.), in highly finished trompe Vail style.
BLAKE, William
(1757-1827)RomanticismEnglish graphic artist Blake William (1757-1827). British poet, ill., draughtsman, engraver, writer and visionary. He completed (1779) his 7-year apprenticeship as an engraver with James Basire, and engraving remained his basic livelihood. B. also studied for a brief time at the R.A. In 1782 he married Catherine Boucher, his beloved and constant companion. Friends such as the sculptor Flaxman supported the publ. of Poetical Sketches (1783) hut after Songs of Innocence (1789) B. printed his own works by a process (duplicated in experiments by Ruthven Todd, S. W. Hayter and |oan Miro) of relief etching of the text and the surrounding design, printing in coloured inks often with retouching in paint. Another very successful technique was colour printing by superimposed impressions from millboard. B. lived mainly in London, but between 1800 and 1803 worked at Felpham, the estate of William Hayley, for whom B. was engraving some poems. While he was at Felpham an argument with a soldier brought B. on trial on a sedition charge, but he was acquitted. The poverty of his last years was relieved by the discipleship of such young painters as Palmer and Calvert, anil commissions from another young friend, John Linnell, for B.'s engravings of Illustrations of the Book of Job (182s) and 100-odd watercolours to Dante's Divine C.omedy. All B.'s work is infused with his intense imagination and visionary experiences; he claimed regular visits from heavenly emissaries. The powerful images of his engravings and paintings display his admiration of Michelangelo (e.g. in their distorted anatomy), Raphael and Diirer; but he rejected the academic traditions represented by Reynolds and the R.A. and the Venetian colounsts, as at once too vague and too material. His rebellion against accepted contemporary artistic theories parallels his political radicalism and religious unorthodoxy. He rejoiced in the French and American revolutions and his spiritual explorations, and his disgust with injustice and hypocrisy strengthened by his contacts with the radical circle of Paine and Godwin, are reflected in the prose satire The Marriage of Hciwen and Hell (1790—3), the poem coll. Songs of Innocence and Experience (1789—94), and such poems as The Trench Rerohilion and America, a Prophecy (1793). In B.'s religious system, (rod is a vengeful terrible power (Unzen); Jesus the embodiment of humanity (Ore); and the virtues which derive from the human principle in its fullest and highest manifestation are Los, the male, Emtharmon, the female. B.'s works include the long poems Milton (1840—8) and fernsalem. The Emanation of the Giant Albion (1804—20); the verse prophetic books Ihe Llt'erlasting Gospel (c. 1818), the Booh of Thel (1789), The Song of Los and Vala or the Four Zoas (1797-1804).
BLANCHARD, Jacques
(1600-1638)BaroqueFrench painter (Paris)
BLANCHET, Thomas
(1614-1689)BaroqueFrench painter
BLECHEN, Karl
(1797-1840)RomanticismGerman painter Blechen Karl(b Cottbus, 29 July 1798; d Berlin, 23 July 1840). German painter.Despite early artistic inclinations, he trained as a bank clerk and then worked as one from 1814 to 1822 before studying at the Akademie der Künste in Berlin. Here Heinrich Anton Dähling (1773–1850) sharpened his interest in Romantic and poetic subjects, while Peter Ludwig Lutke (1759–1831) encouraged his eye for the potential expressiveness of observed language. Blechen was also strongly influenced by the paintings of Caspar David Friedrich, which he was able to study in Berlin at this time. In 1823 he travelled to Dresden, where he visited Johann Christian Clausen Dahl and probably also met Friedrich, who shared the same house. Here Dahl impressed Blechen with his impulsive style of oil sketching. Studies (Berlin, Alte N.G.) of Meissen, especially of the cathedral, and of the dramatic landscape of the surrounding parts of Saxony reveal the early development of Blechen’s tendency to perceive landscape and architecture, especially ruins, as allegories of his own usually rather depressed moods. This passionately subjective use of imagery distinguishes Blechen from Friedrich, whose work shows a far more level-headed deployment of landscape symbols as religious allegory.
BlEECKER, Dirck Gerritsz (see BLEKER, Dirck Gerritsz)
(c. 1621-c. 1679)BaroqueDutch painter (Amsterdam)
BLEKER, Dirck Gerritsz
(c. 1621-c. 1679)BaroqueDutch painter (Amsterdam)
BLEKER, Gerrit Claesz
(c. 1592-1656)BaroqueDutch painter (Haarlem)
BLES, Herri met de
(c. 1500 - c. 1555)MannerismFlemish painter (Antwerp) Bles Herri met de (c. 1480—after 1550). Antwerp painter of landscapes and religious pictures whose style was similar to *Patenier's; there was a fantastic element in his work, especially in his mining landscapes, e.g. The (Copper Alines. He was probably related to Patenier and may have been identical with the Herri de Patenir recorded in the Antwerp Guild in 1535; Bles, meaning 'blaze of white hair', was possibly a nickname. In Italy he was known as 'Hennco Civetta', from the owl emblem with which he signed his pictures.
Boetti Alighiero(1940-94). Arte Povera.
BLEYSWIJCK, Cornelis Adriaensz van
(active 1605-1648)BaroqueDutch goldsmith (Delft)
BLIN, Jean-Baptiste (see BELIN DE FONTENAY, Jean-Baptiste)
(1653-1715)BaroqueFrench painter (Paris)
BLOEMAERT, Abraham
(1566-1651)BaroqueDutch painter (Utrecht) Bloemaert Abraham(1564-1651). Dutch painter of biblical and historical subjects, portraits and still-lifes. After a period of travel, including Paris (1580—3) and Amsterdam (1591—3), he settled at Utrecht, where he played an important part in founding the Utrecht school. He had a great reputation, being visited by Rubens and Elisabeth, Queen of Bohemia, and was the master of J. G. Cuyp, G. Honthorst and H. Terbrugghen. Through the Dutch 'Italianizers' he was affected by Mannerism and Caravaggio's use of chiaroscuro.

BLOEMAERT, Hendrick
(1601-1672)BaroqueDutch painter (Utrecht)
BLOEMEN, Jan Frans van
(1662-1749)BaroqueFlemish painter (Rome)
BLOEMEN, Norbert van
(1670-c. 1746)BaroqueFlemish painter
BLOEMEN, Pieter van
(1657-c. 1720)BaroqueFlemish painter (Antwerp)
BLOMMENDAEL, Jan
(1650-1707)BaroqueDutch sculptor
BLOMMENDAEL, Reyer van
(1628-1675)BaroqueDutch painter
BLONDEEL, Lanceloot
(1498-1561)Northern RenaissanceFlemish painter
BLONDEL, Merry-Joseph
(1761-1853)NeoclassicismFrench painter (Paris)
BLOOT, Pieter de
(1601-1658)BaroqueDutch painter (Rotterdam)
Blume Peter(1906-92). Russian-born U.S. *Magic Realist painter whose mostly allegorical paintings combine certain Surrealist techniques (fantastic, dream imagery, free association) and social concern, e.g. 'The [Sternal City (1934—7). In his earlier paintings, e.g. Parade (1930), he used a *Precisiomst style close to *Sheeler and *Demuth.
BOBADILLA, Jerónimo de
(c. 1620-1709)BaroqueSpanish painter (Seville)
BOBRUN, Charles (see BEAUBRUN, Charles)
(1604-1692)BaroqueFrench painter (Paris)
BOCANEGRA, Pedro Anastasio
(1638-1689)BaroqueSpanish painter (Granada)
BOCCACCINO, Boccaccio
(c. 1460-1525)Early RenaissanceItalian painter (Cremona)
BOCCACCINO, Camillo
(1504/5-1546)Early RenaissanceItalian painter (Cremona)
BOCCATI, Giovanni
(c. 1420-1487)Early RenaissanceItalian painter (Umbria)
Boccioni Umberto (1882-1916). Italian *Futurist painter, sculptor and writer who studied under *Balla in Rome. Inspired by Marinetti's Futurist Manifesto (1909), B. issued the Manifesto of Futuristic Painters (1910). He contributed to an exhibition of Futurist art in Pans (1912) and summarized its ideals in bis book Pittura, sniltura futurist? (1914). Characteristic works are the painting 'The City Rises (1910) and the sculpture Unique Forms of Continuity in Space (1913).
BÖCKLIN, Arnold
(1827-1901)RomanticismSwiss painter Bocklin Arnold (1827—1901). Swiss Romantic painter whose early works were sentimentalized, cliche-ridden classical landscapes; his later fantastic pictures of creatures from Germanic legend and classical mythology, e.g. Triton and Nereid (1873/4), were ponderous rather than dramatic. Imaginative landscapes, e.g. Isle of the Dead (1880), following the tradition of C. 1). Friedrich, have a supernatural, if theatrical, atmosphere.
BOECKEL, Pieter van (see BOUCLE, Pierre van)
(c. 1610-1673)BaroqueFlemish painter (Paris)
BOECKHORST, Jan van
(c. 1604-1668)BaroqueFlemish painter (Antwerp)
BOEL, Pieter
(1622-1674)BaroqueFlemish painter (Antwerp)
BOELEMA DE STOMME, Maerten
(1611-c. 1664)BaroqueDutch painter (Haarlem)
BOGAERT, Jan
(active c. 1550)Northern RenaissanceFlemish potter (Antwerp)
BOGDANI, Jacob (see BOGDÁNY, Jakab)
(c. 1660-1724)BaroqueHungarian painter (London)
BOGDÁNY, Jakab
(c. 1660-1724)BaroqueHungarian painter (London)
Bohemian Masters(fl. mid-i4th c). Painter working in Prague at the court of the Emperor Charles IV. By him are The Glatz- Madonna and Death of the Virgin, 2 of the finest examples of International Gothic style.
BOILLY, Louis Léopold
(1761-1845)RomanticismFrench painter Boilly Louis-Leopold (1761—1845). Popular and prolific French portrait, history and genre painter. His work includes Triumph of Marat (c. 1794) and The Arrival of the Stage-Coach (1803).
BOIZOT, Simon-Louis
(1743-1809)NeoclassicismFrench sculptor
BOL, Ferdinand
(1616-1680)BaroqueDutch painter (Amsterdam) Bol Ferdinand(1616-80). Dutch painter, prior to 1640 a pupil of Rembrandt, to whom many of B.'s paintings were attributed, so well did he imitate his master. In the 1660s his work deteriorated as he pandered to popular taste and painted in a more elegant and decorative manner.
BOL, Hans
(1534-1593)MannerismFlemish painter
Boldini Giovanni (b Ferrara, 31 Dec 1842; d Paris, 11 Jan 1931). Italian painter and printmaker. He received his earliest training from his father, the painter Antonio Boldini (1799–1872). From 1858 he may have attended courses given by Girolamo Domenichini (1813–91) and Giovanni Pagliarini (?1809–78) at the Civico Ateneo di Palazzo dei Diamanti, where he assiduously copied Old Masters. At 18 he was already known in Ferrara as an accomplished portrait painter. In 1862 he went to Florence, where he sporadically attended the Scuola del Nudo at the Accademia di Belle Arti. He frequented the Caffè Michelangiolo, a meeting-place of progressive artists, where he came into contact with the MACCHIAIOLI group of artists.
BOLDRINI, Niccolò
(c. 1500-c. 1570)High RenaissanceItalian painter (Venice)
BOLGI, Andrea
(1605-1656)BaroqueItalian sculptor (Rome)
BOLLANDT, Heinrich
(1577-c. 1651)BaroqueGerman painter (Bayreuth)
BOLLONGIER, Hans
(c. 1600-c. 1675)BaroqueDutch painter (Haarlem)
Bologna Giovanni da(Giambologna, Jean de Boulogne) (1529-1608). One of the greatest and most influential Mannerist sculptors, born at Douai and settled in Florence. His most important works were undertaken for the Medici family, including Flying Mercury, Rape of the Sahines and fountains in the Boboli gardens; among his other works are the early fountain of Neptune at Bologna and Samson Slaying a Philistine.
Bologna, Vitale da(b before 1309; d between 1359 and 1361).Italian painter, Bolognese school. The earliest documentary references to Vitale concern S Francesco, Bologna, where he was paid for decorating a chapel in 1330 and where he witnessed deeds in 1334. He was probably born before 1309, since he would have been at least 25 to act as a witness. The earliest works attributed to him are the frescoes of standing saints and Abraham and the Blessed Souls (Bologna, S Martino), which show a strong Riminese influence in the cool, wine-red and olive tones and lean, high-cheeked faces. Vitale’s work continued to reflect Riminese iconography and features, particularly the vivid characterizations associated with Pietro da Rimini, but his style became less dependent upon these sources. He was paid for paintings in a chapel and the guests’ refectory of S Francesco in 1340. The Last Supper from the refectory (detached; Bologna, Pin. N.) retains the cool pinks and rows of standing saints of the S Martino frescoes, but the modelling of the figures is richer and more expressive. The long table and symmetrical architecture are inspired by Giotto’s frescoes in the Bardi Chapel, Santa Croce, Florence, and the radical transformation in Vitale’s style, which set him apart from his Bolognese contemporaries, was partly due to Giotto’s influence. Above all, however, his style was influenced by the Master of the Triumph of Death at Pisa. The lively gestures, the loose modelling and lime-green and vermilion palette of Bolognese illuminators, particularly the Illustratore, also began to influence Vitale. Bolognese illumination provided a repertory of genre observation that undoubtedly affected his wide range of iconographic innovations. These varied influences can be seen in the uneven but lively quality of the Crucifixion (c. 1335–40; Philadelphia, PA, Mus. A.). Vitale’s work is also often compared to that of Sienese painters. There is no substantial evidence of direct influence but his use of dramatic facial types reminiscent of Pietro Lorenzetti and a decorative richness akin to Simone Martini’s painting suggest that he knew their work.
BOLSWERT, Schelte Adamsz.
(c. 1586-1659)BaroqueFlemish graphic artist (Antwerp)
BOLTRAFFIO, Giovanni Antonio
(1467-1516)Early RenaissanceItalian painter (Milan) Boltraffio (Beltraffio) Giovanni Antonio(1466/7—1516). Italian painter, a pupil of Leonardo da Vinci in Milan. His work includes Virgin and Child and Narcissus.
BOMBELLI, Sebastiano
(1635-1719)BaroqueItalian painter (Venice)
Bomberg David (1890—1957). Polish-born British painter and teacher (1945—53), after years of obscurity, at the Borough Polytechnic, London. B.'s large geometrical compositions, e.g. The Mud Bath (1914), were prominent in the avant-garde of the early 20th c. Later works were representational, e.g. paintings in Palestine (1923—7); from c. 1929 he began to use Expressionist techniques.
BON, Bartolomeo
(active 1421-1464)Early RenaissanceItalian sculptor
BON, Giovanni
(c. 1355-c. 1443)Early RenaissanceItalian sculptor
BONACCORSI, Pietro (see PERINO DEL VAGA)
(1501-1547)High RenaissanceItalian painter
BONACOLSI, Pier Jacopo (see ANTICO)
(c. 1460-1528)Early RenaissanceItalian sculptor (Mantua)
BONANNO DA PISA
(active late 12th cent.)MedievalItalian sculptor
Bonaventura Berlinghieri  (Italian painter, Lucchese school fl 1228–74). Son of Berlinghiero Berlinghieri. His presence at Lucca from 1232 to 1274 is confirmed by a long series of documents, of which one (1244) records that he undertook the entire decoration (untraced) of the deceased Archdeacon’s room. It was to include bird and other ornamental motifs, according to the wishes of Lombardo, master of works at Lucca Cathedral.
BONAVIA, Carlo
(active 1751-1788)RococoItalian painter (Naples)
BONAZZA, Giovanni
(1654-1736)BaroqueItalian sculptor (Padua)
BONE, Henry
(1755-1834)RomanticismEnglish miniaturist
BONFIGLI, Benedetto
(c. 1420-1496)Early RenaissanceItalian painter (Perugia)
BONIFACIO VERONESE
(1487-1557)High RenaissanceItalian painter (Venice)
BONINGTON, Richard Parkes
(1802-1828)RomanticismEnglish painter
Bonington Richard Parkes  (1802-28). British painter and lithographer of great talent, living and working, however, mainly in Calais. B. was a friend of *Delacroix and *Lawrence. I le was awarded a gold medal at the Paris Salon in 1824 at the same time as Constable. In his work the English tradition of topographical landscape combined with the spirit of French Romanticism. His oil paintings and watercolours of marine subjects painted with a light palette and free handling are regarded as his best work. Though B. died young, he had a considerable influence over contemporary and later landscape painting, mainly in France. He was regarded as one of the first to break with the tradition of *David.
 
Bonvicino Alessandro. Il *Moretto

BONINO DA CAMPIONE
(active 1350-90)MedievalItalian sculptor
BONNASSIEUX, Jean-Marie Bienaimé
(1810-1892)NeoclassicismFrench sculptor
Bonnard Pierre (1867—1947). French painter, lithographer and designer who studied at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts (1888) and the Academic |ulian (1889). While a student he met *Serusier, *Vallotton, *Vmllard and the other *Nabis who first exhibited together at the Cafe Volpini m 1889. His early graphic work (Ret'iie Blanche cover, 1 89s) combines acute and often humorous observation of a fleeting pose with an instinctive sense of design. I le ill. a number of books for *Vollard including Parallelemeiil (1900) and the outstanding edition of Daphnis et Chloe' (1902). His decorative use of silhouette reflects the widespread influence of Art Noureau and of Japanese prints. He subscribed to the Nabis doctrine of abandoning 3-dimensional modelling in favour of flat colour areas, but was never committed to the Symbolist aspect of the movement.
After 1900 he concentrated more on painting and although he still worked more from his observation than his imagination, his early wit and charm gave way to a Matisse-like monumentahty of design. Mature works like La Baignoire (1925) play off the considerable surface richness of paint and colour against a simple formal strength and bis acute perception of light. After 191 1 he worked either at Vernon or in S. France.

BONO, Michele di Taddeo di Giovanni (see GIAMBONO, Michele)
(c. 1400-c. 1462)Early RenaissanceItalian painter (Venice)
BONSIGNORI, Francesco
(1455-1519)Early RenaissanceItalian painter (Verona)
Bontecou Lee born 1931. American artist  born in Providence, Rhode Island. She studied at the Art Students League, New York, 1952-5 under William Zorach and John Hovannes. Awarded a Fulbright Fellowship to Rome 1957-8. First one-woman exhibition (of bronzes) at Gallery G, New York, 1959. Began in 1959 to make relief constructions out of canvas, wire and welded steel, with mysterious openings often protected by grills or menacing metal jaws, and suggestive of mouths, vaginas etc. Turned in 1967 to making free-standing sculptures in vacuum-formed plastic of fish and flowers. Lives in New York.
BONTEMPS, Pierre
(active 1536-1567)MannerismFrench sculptor
BONVICINO, Alessandro (see MORETTO da Brescia)
(c. 1498-1554)MannerismItalian painter (Brescia)
BONVICINO, Ambrogio
(c. 1552-1622)MannerismItalian sculptor (Rome)
BONZI, Pietro Paolo
(c. 1576-1636)BaroqueItalian painter (Rome)
BOONEN, Arnold(1669-1729)BaroqueDutch painter
BOR, Paulus
(1605-1669)BaroqueDutch painter (Amersfoort)
BORCH, Gerard ter (see TERBORCH, Gerard)
(1617-1681)BaroqueDutch painter (Deventer)
BORCHT, Hendrik van der, the Elder
(1583-1651)BaroqueFlemish painter (Germany)
BORDONE, Paris
(1500-1571)High RenaissanceItalian painter (Venice) Bordone Paris (1500—71). Venetian painter, a pupil of Titian, whose style he followed closely. He worked in France tor King Francis I and later in Augsburg and Milan, painting portrait, religious, allegorical and mythological subjects including Fisherman presenting the Ring of St Mark to the Doge and Saluator Munch.
BORGIANNI, Orazio
(1574-1616)BaroqueItalian painter (Rome)
BORGOÑA, Juan de
(d. 1554)High RenaissanceSpanish painter (Toledo)
Borissov-Mussatov Victor (1870-1905). Russian painter. In Paris he worked in G. *Moreau's studio; *Puvis tie Chavannes made a great impression on him. He returned to Russia (1899), working near Saratov painting melancholy scenes of derelict classical mansions peopled by sad, crinolined figures. A lonely figure, both as artist and man, he was influential on the *Blue Rose Group.
BOROVIKOVSKY, Vladimir Lukich
(1757-1825)RococoRussian painter
BOROVYK, Volodymyr (see BOROVIKOVSKY, Vladimir Lukich)
(1757-1825)RococoRussian painter
BORRÁS, Fray Nicolás
(1530-1610)MannerismSpanish painter (Gandía)
BORRASSA, Lluis
(c. 1360-1425)Early RenaissanceCatalan painter (Barcelona)
Borromini Francesco(1599-1677). Architect.
BORSATO, Giuseppe
(1770-1849)NeoclassicismItalian painter (Venice)
BORSSUM, Anthonie van
(1630/31-1677)BaroqueDutch painter (Amsterdam)
BOS, Cornelis
(c. 1510-c. 1566)Northern RenaissanceFlemish graphic artist (Antwerp)
BOSCH, Hieronymus
(c. 1450-1516)Northern RenaissanceNetherlandish painter
Bosch Hieronymus, also called van Aeken (c. 1450—1516). Netherlands painter. Documentary evidence connects him at various periods between 1480 and 1516 with Ins birthplace Hcrtogenbosch (Bois-le-Duc), where he belonged to the Brotherhood of the Holy Virgin; he designed the stained-glass windows and a crucifix for the Chapel of the Brotherhood (151 1-12) and was presumably a highly respected member of the community. He was referred to at his death as the 'famous artist', winch is borne out by a commission in ] 504 for a Ijist Judgment by Philip the Handsome of Burgundy. 13. was a religious painter with a strong bent towards satire, pessimistic comment and great interest in everyday life. This has made his work, a unity 111 form and content, one of the last profound expressions of the medieval world view. Landscape plays an important part in his compositions, it sets the mood and it is seen with directness. Religious iconography is reinterpreted freely in the mood of popular prints, and the unbridled fantasy of the artist explores, not so much the world of the subconscious but every thematic variation, allusion and symbol available to his contemporaries. These were not puzzle pictures in their time, but picture books which could be read and understood. Only when the tradition and the understanding were lost did they increasingly require interpretation of some kind, until in our own time, with the advent of Surrealism, attempts have been made to 'explain' B. by means of dream analysis. He was also referred to as a heretic by later generations. It is impossible to date and arrange his work in chronological sequence as much of his original work is now lost, many copies were made m his lifetime and even his signature forged. The Haywain and The Garden of Delights are triptychs fully authenticated and so is the table panel of the Esconal, which once belonged to Philip II as one of his intimate possessions. Other important paintings by B. are: Christ Mocked, and a portrayal of the Ship of Fools, a common contemporary theme.
BOSIO, François-Joseph
(1768-1845)NeoclassicismFrench sculptor
BOSSCHAERT, Abraham
(c. 1612-1643)BaroqueDutch painter (Utrecht)
BOSSCHAERT, Ambrosius the Elder
(1573-1621)BaroqueDutch painter (Utrecht) Bosschaert Ambrosius (1573-1621). Flemish flower and still-life painter who spent most of his life in Holland and died at The Hague. B.'s works are exceptional m their subtlety of colour, their detail and finish.
BOSSCHAERT, Ambrosius the Younger
(1609-45)BaroqueDutch painter (Utrecht)
BOSSCHAERT, Jan-Baptist
(1667-1746)BaroqueFlemish painter (Antwerp)
BOSSCHAERT, Johannes
(c. 1610-c.1650)BaroqueDutch painter (Utrecht)
BOSSE, Abraham
(1602-1676)BaroqueFrench graphic artist
BOSSUIT, Francis van
(1635-1692)BaroqueFlemish sculptor (Amsterdam)
Botero Fernando(1932- ). Colombian artist of recognizable 'fat' figures and exaggerated forms, initially influenced by *Goya and *Velazcjuez, e.g. Princess Margarita after Velasquez (I978)
BOTH, Andries
(c. 1612-1641)BaroqueDutch painter (Rome)
BOTH, Jan
(c. 1618-1652)BaroqueDutch painter (Rome)
BOTTANI, Giuseppe
(1717-1784)RococoItalian painter
BOTTICELLI, Sandro
(1445-1510)Early RenaissanceItalian painter (Florence) Botticelli Sandro, born Alessandro Filipepi (c. 1445—1 5 10). Italian painter. Born in Florence, B. lived at the time of the city's greatest intellectual and artistic flowering, which coincides roughly with the reign of Lorenzo the Magnificent (1449—92). He was trained or influenced by Fra Filippo *Lippi and by the two Pollaiuolo brothers. In 1470 he painted the figure Fortitude, one of 7 'Virtues', commissioned from P. Pollaiuolo. Another teacher of influence was unquestionably Verrocchio. Thus B. was prepared for his career by those masters who represented all that was most vital in Florentine painting. To this he brought a rare talent for draughtsmanship and a very unusual temperament.
19th-c. writers on art have been responsible for creating an almost legendary figure, making B. the embodiment of the Renaissance painter: in tact, he was by no means typical. The picture of B. as a lyrical painter, bringing back to life the myths of the Golden Age of Greece must also be modified. It relies on those paintings B. was commissioned to paint by patrons such as Lorenzo the Magnificent, and his cousin, Lorenzo di Pier Francesco de' Medici who set the subjects from Poliziano, Marsiho Ficino and classical authors, and who restrained B.'s natural temperament. The most famous of these paintings of classical myths are The Birth of Venus, the Primavera, Pallas Subduing a Centaur and Venus and Mars. Thoughtful, but serene, they have coloured men's ideas about classical antiquity since they were painted. With the madonnas and such large works as The Adoration of the Magi, they are the best known of 13.'s works. IB. probably reveals himself more fully, however, in such paintings as The (Jalumuy of Apelles, another classical subject, where the story from l.ucian is told with effects that are strained to the point of frenzy. The drawn and troubled figure of the Baptist m the St Barnabas Altarpiece is obviously close in feeling to similar figures by A. Castagno, but there is something about it which disturbs the serenity of the whole picture. Such elements are even more pronounced in the Deposition and in the same subject in the Alte Pina., Munich. We know that when Savonarola proclaimed his religious crusade against the vanities of Renaissance Florence at the end of 15. s life, IB. became one of his followers. Very little is certain about his life that is not based upon Vasari, but it seems likely that in the Mystic Nativity which is dated 1500/1501, and which has an inscription referring to the Apocalypse and the 'troubles of Italy', the reconciliation between the angels and the fallen angels at the birth of Christ gives a significant clue to the divisions in B.'s own personality.
However great his inner turmoil, his life seems to have been relatively tranquil for the times. He won early recognition for his talent. Between 1481 and 1482 he was in Rome painting frescoes in the Sistine Chapel with a number of the leading painters. Vasari claims that he lost much of the reputation he had built up after this by taking time from painting to illustrate Dante. These drawings show an incredible gift for draughtmanship (Beatrice and Dante in Paradise). B. was prosperous enough by the end of the c. to be running a large workshop, but with the revolutions in painting brought about by Leonardo and Michelangelo, and his own ill-health in old age, B.'s popularity appears to have diminished. After his death he was often forged but seldom imitated.
BOTTICINI, Francesco
(b.1446-1497)Early RenaissanceItalian painter (Florence)
BOTTICINI, Raffaello
(1477-c. 1520)High RenaissanceItalian painter (Florence)
BOUCHARDON, Edme
(1698-1762)NeoclassicismFrench sculptor
BOUCHER, François
(1703-1770)RococoFrench painter Boucher Francois (1703-70). French court painter and decorative artist, the truest exponent of the Rococo style. He studied under *Lemoyne and began working on engravings after Watteau. In Italy (1727-31) B. was influenced by Tiepolo. In the 1740s he obtained the patronage of Madame de Pompadour; he painted several portraits of her and through her influence became chief painter to Louis XV in 1765. His superficial but graceful, delicately coloured, frivolous and endlessly inventive variations on pastoral mythological themes were exactly attuned to the artificiality of Louis XV tastes. He also executed designs for Beauvais and Gobelins tapestries. *Fragonard was his pupil.
BOUCLE, Pierre van
(c. 1610-1673)BaroqueFlemish painter (Paris)
BOUCQUET, Vigor
(1619-1677)BaroqueFlemish painter
BOUDARD, Jean-Baptiste
(1710-1768)RococoFrench sculptor (Parma)
BOUDEWIJNS, Adriaen Frans
(1644-1711)BaroqueFlemish painter
BOUGUEREAU, William-Adolphe
(1825-1905)RealismFrench painter Bouguereau Adolphe William (1825-1905). The most revered French academic painter of his day. His harmony of composition and technical skill, as displayed in his female nudes, were superb but his subjects banal.
BOULANGER, Gustave
(1824-1888)RealismFrench painter (Paris) Boulanger Gustave(b Paris, 25 April 1824; d Paris, Oct 1888). French painter. Born of creole parents, Boulanger became an orphan at 14. His uncle and guardian sent him to the studio of Pierre-Jules Jollivet and then in 1840 to Paul Delaroche, whose prosaic Realism and dry, careful technique influenced Boulanger’s style of painting. A first visit to Algeria in 1845 gave him an interest in North African subjects, which was taken up later by his friend Jean-Léon Gérôme. In 1849 he won the Prix de Rome with Ulysses Recognized by his Nurse (Paris, Ecole N. Sup. B.-A.), in which he combined academic figure drawing with Pompeian touches inspired by Ingres’s Antiochus and Stratonice (1840; Chantilly, Mus. Condé). Boulanger’s knowledge of the ruins at Pompeii, which he visited while studying at the Ecole de Rome, gave him ideas for many future pictures, including the Rehearsal in the House of the Tragic Poet (1855; St Petersburg, Hermitage), in which the influence of Stratonice is still obvious. This was later developed into the Rehearsal of the ‘Flute Player’ and the ‘Wife of Diomedes’ (1861; Versailles, Château), which recorded the preparations being made for a performance given before the imperial Court in Napoleon’s mock-Pompeian Paris house. Boulanger specialized in painting studies of daily life from ancient Greece and Rome, as well as Arab subjects. He also painted a number of decorative schemes, at the theatre of the Casino in Monte Carlo (1879), at the Paris Opéra (1861–74) and other locations, opportunities gained through his friendship with CHARLES GARNIER, his fellow pensionnaire at the Ecole de Rome. He entered the Institut de France in 1882 and became an influential teacher, well known for his dislike of the Impressionists and their successors.
BOULENGER, Hans (see BOLLONGIER, Hans)
(c. 1600-c. 1675)BaroqueDutch painter (Haarlem)
BOULLE, André-Charles
(1642-1732)BaroqueFrench cabinet-maker (Paris)
BOULLOGNE, Bon
(1649-1717)BaroqueFrench painter (Paris)
BOULLOGNE, Louis the Younger
(1654-1733)BaroqueFrench painter (Paris)
Bourdelle (Emile) Antoine (1861-1929). French sculptor, painter and designer, for several years Rodin's assistant. Rodin's influence can be seen in the strong lines and vigorous movement of B.'s work, e.g. Hercules the Archer (1909) but B. was also affected by his study of Greek and Egyptian art. His output includes frescoes and reliefs for the Theatre des Champs-Elysecs (1912), monumental work and many portrait busts.
BOURDICHON, Jean
(1457-1521)Early RenaissanceFrench illuminator (Tours)
BOURDON, Sébastien
(1616-1671)BaroqueFrench painter Bourdon Sebastien(1616-71). French painter of portraits, historical and religious subjects and landscape. In Rome (1634-7) he executed pastiches after Castiglione, P. van Laer, Claude and N. Poussin. Returning to Paris, he gained a great reputation and was one of the founders of the Paris Academy of Painting and Sculpture (1648). From 1652 to 1654 he was court painter to Queen Christina of Sweden.
Bourgeois Louise (1911— ). French-born U.S. sculptor. She began her career as a painter and engraver. She turned to imaginative and highly individual carved sculpture in the late 1940s making abstract elongated forms and clustered groups of abstract shapes painted black and white. In the 1960s she turned to plaster for bronze (e.g. Labyrinthine Tower, 1963) creating anthropomorphic forms and inside-out shapes which evoke the human body, and which were subsequently worked in marble.
BOURSSE, Esaias
(1631-1672)BaroqueDutch painter (Amsterdam)
BOUT, Pieter
(1658-1719)BaroqueFlemish painter (Brussels)
BOUTS, Dieric the Elder
(c. 1415-1475)Northern RenaissanceFlemish painter (Leuven)  Bouts Dieric (c. 1415-75). Early Netherlands painter who united in his work the influence of the brothers Van Eyck and of Rogier van der Weyden, possibly his master. An objective painter, he was concerned with a detached observation of reality and an intellectual approach to spatial problems, to perspective and composition. This is evident in the liucharisl triptych where a contemporary banqueting scene is transformed by an austere geometry into the pathos of The Last Supper. The Hades panel of The List Judgement triptych reveals a more tender lyricism in expression and characterization of resignation and grace.
Bozic Tiffany. Surrealism.
BOUTS, Dieric the Younger
(c. 1448-1491)Northern RenaissanceFlemish painter (Leuven)
Bowers David, born 1956 in Chambersburg, Pennsylvania and graduated from art school in Pittsburgh in 1979. Fantastic art.
Boyer Rebekah. Neo-Figurative Art.
BOYS, Thomas Shotter
(1803-1874)RomanticismEnglish graphic artist (London)
BOZE, Joseph
(1745-1826)RococoFrench painter (Paris)
Braccelli Giovanni Battista  (1600-1650). Bizzarie di Varie Figure, 1624
BRACCESCO, Carlo
(active 1478-1501)Early RenaissanceItalian painter (Liguria)
BRACCI, Pietro
(1700-1773)BaroqueItalian sculptor (Rome)
BRAKENBURG, Richard
(1650-1702)BaroqueDutch painter (Haarlem)
BRAMANTE, Donato
(1444-1514)Early RenaissanceItalian architect (Milan) Bramante Donato (1444—1514). Perhaps the greatest Italian architect of the High Renaissance, born near Urbino. He was a relation of Raphael and 1st trained as a painter.
When Pope Julius II demolished the thousand-year-old basilica of St Peter's, he commissioned 13. to design a new one (begun in 1506). B.'s plan has been obscured by later work, though Michelangelo used as much of it as he could. What the interior would have looked like can be seen in Raphael's painting The School of Athens.
BRAMANTINO
(c. 1460-1536)Early RenaissanceItalian painter (Lombardy) Bramantino (b ?Milan, c. 1465; d Milan, 1530). Italian painter and architect. He was one of the leading artists in Milan in the early 16th century. His early training as a goldsmith may indicate a relatively late start to his activity as a painter, and none of his work may be dated before 1490. The style of his early work parallels that of such followers of Vincenzo Foppa as Bernardino Butinone, Bernardo Zenale and Giovanni Donato da Montorfano. He assumed the name Bramantino very early in his career, indicating that he was in close contact with Donato Bramante, whose influence is uppermost in his early work. Probably his earliest surviving painting is the Virgin and Child (Boston, MA, Mus. F.A.). It is an adaptation of a type of half-length Virgin with standing Christ Child well known in Milan. The linear emphasis and the dramatic treatment of light are aspects derived from Bramante’s work. Bramantino stressed graphic quality in this picture, and throughout his early work he was considerably influenced by Andrea Mantegna and by the visual aspects of prints. His Risen Christ (Madrid, Mus. Thyssen–Bornemisza) derives from Bramante’s Christ at the Column (c. 1490; Milan, Brera) but has a more precise musculature and a much harder use of line. The conception of the figure set against a rocky background, derived from Leonardo da Vinci’s Virgin of the Rocks (versions, London, N.G.; Paris, Louvre), also indicates Bramantino’s persistently eclectic nature.
BRAMER, Leonaert
(1596-1674)BaroqueDutch painter (Delft)
Brancusi Constantm (1876—1957). One of the outstanding sculptors of the 20th c, born 111 Rumania and trained initially as a carpenter and stonemason. He studied sculpture at Bucharest (1898-1902) and in 1904 settled in Paris for life. Here he soon shared the interest, common among Parisian artists, in African and other primitive arts, but the most absorbing influence on him was his native folk art and oriental art. Primarily a carver of wood and stone, he worked towards expressive strength through formal simplification, and The Kiss (1908) is in some ways a sculptural counterpart to Picasso's Demoiselles D'Avigtwn of 1907. But, unlike Picasso, B. always retained in his carvings something of the mystic symbolism of non-European mainstream art. Le Nouveau-Ne (1915) and Le Commencement du monde (1924) are universal symbols of life and fertility — simple but never symmetrical or geometrical. His Lndless Column (1937—8) is a turning point in 20th-c. sculpture: B.'s influence on it is two-told. He brought about a revival of carving and had a craftsmanlike respect for the nature of his materials; his last years were devoted to polishing the surface of earlier works, e.g. Fish (1940s). Secondly, be endowed sculpture with an almost sacred significance: his carvings are objects for contemplation. 'B.'s mission was to make us shape-conscious' (Henry Moore).
BRANDI, Giacinto
(1621-1691)BaroqueItalian painter
Brandt Bill (1904 – 1983) was an influential British photographer and photojournalist known for his high-contrast images of British society and his distorted nudes and landscapes. (Surrealism - photographers). Born in Hamburg, Germany, son of a British father and German mother, Brandt grew up during World War I. Shortly after the war, he contracted tuberculosis and spent much of his youth in a sanatorium in Davos, Switzerland. He traveled to Vienna to undertake a course of treatment for TB by psychoanalysis. He was in any case pronounced cured and began an apprenticeship in a portrait studio in the city. When Ezra Pound visited a mutual friend, Eugenie Schwarzwald, Brandt made his portrait. In appreciation, Pound offered Brandt an introduction to Man Ray, in whose Paris studio, Brandt would assist in 1930.In 1933 Brandt moved to London and began documenting all levels of British society. This kind of documentary was uncommon at that time. Brandt published two books showcasing this work, The English at Home (1936) and A Night in London (1938). He was a regular contributor to magazines such as Lilliput, Picture Post, and Harper's Bazaar. He documented the Underground bomb shelters of London during The Blitz in 1940, commissioned by the Ministry of Information.During World War II, Brandt focused every kind of subject - as can be seen in his "Camera in London" (1948) but excelled in portraiture and landscape. To mark the arrival of peace in 1945 he began a celebrated series of nudes. His major books from the post-war period are Literary Britain (1951), and Perspective of Nudes (1961), followed by a compilation of the best of all areas of his work, Shadow of Light (1966). Brandt became Britain's most influential and internationally admired photographer of the 20th century. Many of his works have important social commentary but also poetic resonance. His landscapes and nudes are dynamic, intense and powerful, often using wide-angle lenses and distortion.
Braque Georges (1882—1963). French painter. He was born in Argenteuil. At Le Havre, from 1889, he worked as apprentice to his father, a house painter. He moved to Pans in 1900 and then studied at the free Academie Humbert (1902—4). In 1905 he was deeply impressed by the room of *Fauve paintings at the Salon d'Automne (including Matisse, Derail] and B.'s friends from Le Havre, Fnesz and Dufy). The landscapes that B. painted (1906—7) at Antwerp (e.g. Harbour Scene, Antwerp, 1906), L'Estaque and Le Ciotat are in freely broken strokes of strong colour. B. considered these his 1st creative works.
In 1907, like so many of his generation, he was overwhelmed by the Cezanne Memorial Exhibition at the Salon d'Automne and this revelation was followed by his meeting with Picasso and the disconcerting distortions of the Demoiselles d'Avignon. B.'s ruthlessly simplified sombre-coloured landscapes and figures, e.g. Nude (1907—8), of the next 2 years show the extent of his change of direction and prepare the way for the development of Cubism. B. is credited with the introduction into Cubist painting of typography (in Le Porlugais, 191 1) and of the decorator's techniques of wood-graining and marbling, but Cubism was essentially the product of a remarkable partnership with Picasso ('marriage' was Picasso's word) which was broken by the war and B.'s call up in 1914. Cubism established above all the self-sufficient existence of the work of art, independent of reality, that was implicit in Cezanne's late landscapes. In looking beyond the superficial appearance of their subjects, Picasso and B. created a precedent which has contributed in one way or another to most subsequent developments in European painting and sculpture, both figurative and abstract.
Seriously injured in 1915, B. returned to Paris in 1917 where, apart from summers at Varengeville, he spent the rest of his life. His earliest post-war paintings returned to synthetic Cubism with a stronger palette; La Musicienne (1917-18).
From 1920, although still related to his Cubist experience in their formal improvisation, his paintings are less obviously disciplined. The qualities which distinguished his Cubist paintings from Picasso's — his fluent painterliness and his natural ability as a rich but subtle colourist — predominate in a work like Guitar and Jug (1927). The still-life remained his principal theme from the (Jueridon series (1927—30) to the climactic A teller series (1949—55) '" which the scope of the still-life extends to include the studio, the artist, his model and even the painting itself. The mysterious presence of the bird in flight is gently evocative in this as in other works by B., and the mood of his whole oeuvre - apart from his shortlived excursion into Surrealism in the early 1930s — is serene and harmonious.
Brassai(b Brasso, Transylvania, Hungary [now Romania], 9 Sept 1899; d Nice, 8 July 1984). French photographer, draughtsman, sculptor and writer of Hungarian birth. The son of a Hungarian professor of French literature, he lived in Paris in 1903–4 while his father was on sabbatical there, and this early experience of the city greatly impressed him. In 1917 he met the composer Béla Bartók, and from 1918 to 1919 he studied at the Academy of Fine Arts in Budapest. Due to the hostility between Hungary and France in World War I he was unable to study in France and so moved to Berlin in late 1920. There he became acquainted with László Moholy-Nagy, Kandinsky and Kokoschka and in 1921–2 attended the Akademische Hochschule in Charlottenburg, Berlin. He was a keen draughtsman and while there produced a series of characteristic drawings of nudes executed in an angular, emphatic style. In 1924 he moved to Paris, where he quickly became involved with the artists and poets of the Montmartre and Montparnasse districts while supporting himself as a journalist. In 1925 he adopted the name Brassai, derived from that of his native town, and throughout that year he continued drawing as well as making sculptures. In 1926 he met André Kertész, who introduced him to photography. In 1930 Brassai began taking photographs of Paris at night, concentrating on its architecture and the nocturnal activities of its inhabitants. These were collected and published as Paris de nuit in 1933 and showed the night workers, cafés, brothels, theatres, streets and buildings of the capital. The artificial lighting created strong tonal contrasts, lending the images a strikingly evocative beauty. Some of his photographs were included in the exhibition Modern European Photographers at the Julien Levy Gallery in New York in 1932, and the following year at the Arts et Métiers Graphiques in Paris he had a one-man show of his photographs of Paris, which travelled to the Batsford Gallery in London the same year.
Brauer Aric (born 1929). Austrian painter, draughtsman, printmaker, poet, dancer, singer and stage designer. He resides in Vienna and Ein-Hod Israel. Brauer is a co-founder of the Vienna School of Fantastic Realism, together with Ernst Fuchs, Rudolf Hausner, Wolfgang Hutter and Anton Lehmden. Erich 'Arik' Brauer is the child of Lithuanian Jewish emigrants. His post-war artistic training was in Vienna, under the supervision of Albert Paris von Gutersloh. Gütersloh promoted Brauer's work within the Vienna School of Fantastic Realism circle of artists, which had formed in the mid-1950s from a post-1946 Viennese surrealist group that had included Brauer along with Edgar Jené, Ernst Fuchs, Wolfgang Hutter, Rudolf Hausner, Anton Lehmden, and Fritz Janschka. Despite the prevailing art-world taste for abstraction in the 1950s and early 60s, Brauer's work successfully blended high craftsmanship and surrealism in ways that gained him international attention. In 1982 he had breakthrough solo shows in the USA. Brauer has also designed architectural projects in Austria and Israel. The facades and interiors of his buildings are covered with fantastical mosaics, murals and painted tiles. He also designed 2002 the first United Buddy Bear for Austria. (Fantastic realism, Vienna School of Fantastic realism).
Brauner Victor (1903-66). Rumanian painter working mainly in France and associated with the Surrealist movement.
Bravo Claudio. Born in Chile, November 8, 1936 in the town of Valparaíso, Claudio Bravo has lived and worked in Tangier, Morocco since 1972.
In 1945 he joined the Colegio San Ignacio in Santiago, Chile and studied art in the studio of Miguel Venegas Cienfuentes in Santiago. In 1954 he had his first exhibition at "Salón 13" in Santiago at the age of 17. 1955 He danced professionally with the Compañía de Ballet de Chile and worked for Teatro de Ensayo of the Universidad Católica de Chile.
Later he established himself in Madrid in the 1960s as a society portraitist, gaining recognition for his astounding ability to create verisimilitude. His ability to depict complex objects and shapes is reminiscent of Velázquez.
In 1968 Bravo received an invitation from President Marcos of the Philippines to come and paint him and his wife, Imelda Marcos as well as members of the high society.
In 1970 he had his first exhibition at the Staempfli Gallery in New York which received rave reviews from renowned New York Times art critic John Canaday. Years later, when Bravo's work reflected the hippie movement, Canaday would refer to Bravo's work as "cheap and vulgar".
Bravo moved to Tangier in 1972 where he purchased a 19th century three story mansion. He had many of the walls removed and the remaining walls were painted white to encourage the Mediterranean light so present in his paintings.
Bravo has painted many prominent figures in society including dictator Franco of Spain, President Ferdinand Marcos and First Lady Imelda Marcos of the Philippines and Malcolm Forbes.
Works by Claudio Bravo are included in the collections of the Baltimore Museum of Art, Baltimore, Maryland; The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, New York; Museo Nacional de Bellas Artes, Santiago, Chile; Museo Rufino Tamayo, Mexico City, Mexico; Museum Boymans-van Beuningen, Rotterdam, The Netherlands; Museum of Modern Art, New York, New York; Museum Ludwig, Cologne, Germany; The Palmer Museum of Art, State College, Pennsylvania; and the Philadelphia Museum of Art, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.
BRAY, Dirck de
(active 1651-1678)BaroqueDutch painter (Haarlem)
BRAY, Jan de
(c. 1627-1697)BaroqueDutch painter (Haarlem)
BRAY, Joseph de
(d. 1664)BaroqueDutch painter (Haarlem)
BRAY, Salomon de
(1597-1664)BaroqueDutch painter (Haarlem)
BREEN, Gillis van
(active 1595-1622)BaroqueDutch graphic artist (Haarlem)
BREENBERGH, Bartholomeus
(1598/1600-1657)BaroqueDutch painter (Amsterdam)
BREGHTEL, Hans Conraedt
(c. 1608-1675)BaroqueGerman goldsmith (The Hague)
BREGNO, Andrea
(1418-1503)Early RenaissanceItalian sculptor Bregno Andrea(b Osteno, nr Lugano, 1418; d Rome, Sept 1503). Italian architect and sculptor. Nothing is known of Bregno’s activity until his arrival in Rome in the 1460s, although his early works betray a Lombard training. During the pontificate of Sixtus IV he became the most popular and prolific sculptor of his day, with a large and well-organized bottega. He worked mainly on the decoration of tombs of prelates and dignitaries of the papal court. Bregno became famous in his lifetime and was mentioned, together with Verrocchio, by Giovanni Santi in La vita e le geste di Federico di Montefeltro duca d’Urbino, written between 1484 and 1487. The writer of a funeral epitaph actually compared him with Polykleitos. Bregno’s work is characterized by great refinement and technical skill. Although he was often not particularly inventive, he was certainly a fine sculptor of grotesques and other forms of ornamentation. He soon fell under the influence of Tuscan models, probably as a result of his contact with Mino da Fiesole, with whom he worked in Rome. There his style became more classical and its design more compact, with precise references to antique sculpture: documents show that he possessed a collection of antique objects recovered from excavations. He was also a friend of Platina, who held him in high esteem, as he wrote in a letter to Lorenzo the Magnificent.
BREGNO, Antonio
(active 1425-1457)Early RenaissanceItalian sculptor
BREGNO, Giovanni Battista
(c. 1472-c. 1518)Early RenaissanceItalian sculptor
BREKELENKAM, Quiringh van
(active c. 1647-1668)BaroqueDutch painter (Leiden)
BRESCIANINO, Andrea del
(c. 1485-c. 1545)High RenaissanceItalian painter (Siena)
Bresdin Rodolphe (France, 1825-1885).
Breton Andre (1896-1966). French poet, leader and principal theorist of Surrealism. He publ. 3 Surrealist manifestos (1924, 1930, 1934) and founded Surrealist research laboratories which employed Freudian techniques in studying the subconscious. His works include: the poetry colls Mom de piele (1919), Les Pas perdus (1924) and Pocnies (1948); he also wrote the partly autobiographical 'novel' Natlja (1928).
Breton Jules(b Courrières, Pas-de-Calais, 1 May 1827; d Paris, 5 July 1906). French painter and writer. After the death of his mother he was brought up in the village of Courrières by his father, grandmother and uncle. The last instilled in him respect for tradition and a commitment to the philosophical ideas of the 18th century. Breton’s father, as supervisor of the lands of the Duc de Duras, encouraged him to develop a deep knowledge of and affection for his native region and its heritage, which remained central to his art.
BREU, Jörg the Elder
(1475/76-1537)Northern RenaissanceGerman painter (Augsburg) Breu Jorg the Elder (c. 1475 – 1537) of Augsburg was a painter of the German Danube school. He was the son of a weaver.
He journeyed to Austria and created several multi-panel altarpieces there in 1500–02, such as the Melk Altar (1502). He returned to Augsburg in 1502 where he became a master. He travelled to Italy twice, in ca. 1508 and in 1514/15.
After his death in 1537, his son, Jörg Breu the Younger continued to lead his Augsburg workshop until his own death 10 years later.
Breuning Olaf(Swiss, 1970). Find works of art, auction results & sale prices of artist Olaf Breuning at galleries and auctions worldwide.
BRIL, Paul
(1554-1626)BaroqueFlemish painter (Rome)
BRIOSCO, Andrea (see RICCIO, Il)
(c. 1460-1532)High RenaissanceItalian sculptor (Padua)
Briosco Benedetto(b Milan, c. 1460; d ?Milan, after April 1514). Italian sculptor. The first notice of his activity dates from 1477, when he and his brother-in-law Francesco Cazzaniga were employed as sculptors on the monument to Giovanni Borromeo and Vitaliano Borromeo (Isola Bella, Palazzo Borromeo, chapel), which was executed for S Francesco Grande, Milan. By 1482 he had begun employment for the Works of Milan Cathedral and in 1483 was paid for carving a figure of S Apollonia (untraced). Although he was a master figure sculptor at the cathedral until the middle of 1485, the other work he did there remains unknown. During 1483–4 it is likely that he assisted Francesco and Tommaso Cazzaniga in the execution of the tomb of Cristoforo and Giacomo Antonio della Torre (Milan, S Maria delle Grazie). In 1484 he and the Cazzaniga brothers began work on the tomb of Pietro Francesco Visconti di Saliceto destined for the Milanese church of S Maria del Carmine (destr.; reliefs in Cleveland, OH, Mus. A.; Kansas City, MO, Nelson-Atkins Mus. A.; and Washington, DC, N.G.A.; architectural elements in Paris, Louvre). This project was completed by Briosco and Tommaso Cazzaniga following Francesco Cazzaniga’s death at the beginning of 1486. In the same year Benedetto and Tommaso were commissioned to finish the tomb of Giovanni Francesco Brivio (Milan, S Eustorgio), designed and begun by Francesco. Briosco’s hand is virtually impossible to distinguish in these collaborative works. In 1489 the Apostolic Prothonotary and ducal councillor Ambrogio Griffo engaged Briosco to execute his funerary monument, to be installed in the church of S Pietro in Gessate, Milan. This tomb, which in its original form consisted of an effigy mounted on a high rectangular sarcophagus, appears to be Briosco’s first major independent work and represents a significant break with Lombard tradition; although its design may to some extent have been influenced by Giovanni Antonio Amadeo’s tomb to Medea Colleoni (Bergamo, Colleoni Chapel), it was free-standing and entirely secular in content. In 1490 Briosco returned to Milan Cathedral, where he was engaged to carve four life-size statues each year until he or his employers should cancel the arrangement. Although he worked at the cathedral until mid-1492, only a figure of St Agnes (Milan, Mus. Duomo) is documented from this period.
BRITTO, Giovanni
(active 1530-1550)High RenaissanceItalian graphic artist (Venice)
BRIZIO, Francesco
(c. 1574-1623)BaroqueItalian painter (Bologna)
BROC, Jean
(1771-1850)RomanticismFrench painter
BROCKY, Károly
(1807-1855)RomanticismHungarian painter (London)
Brodahl Cris(born 1963, Ghent, Belgium) is an artist based in Ghent. Brodahl has shown internationally in exhibitions including 'Electric Blue' at Xavier Hufkens in Brussels Cut at The Approach in London, Michael Bauer, Cris Brodahl, Stef Driesen at Marc Foxx in Los Angeles and The Triumph of Painting at the Saatchi Gallery in London. She is represented by Xavier Hufkens in Brussels, [The Approach Gallery|The approach] in London and Marc Foxx in Los Angeles.
BROEDERLAM, Melchior
(ca. 1355- ca. 1411)MedievalFlemish painter (Burgundy) Broederlam Melchior (fl. 1381-r. 1409). Painter born at Ypres. About 1385 he became painter to Philip the Bold, Duke of Burgundy, who commissioned from him 2 wings for an altar in the Carthusian monastery at Champmol (1392-9). These depict the Annunciation, the Visitation, the Presentation in the Temple and the Flight into Egypt, and are an early example of International Gothic style.
BROMPTON, Richard
(c.1734-1783)RococoEnglish painter
BRONCHORST, Jan Gerritsz van
(1603-1661)BaroqueDutch painter
BRONDGEEST, Albertus
(1786-1849)RomanticismDutch graphic artist (Amsterdam)
BRONZINO, Agnolo
(1503-1572)High RenaissanceItalian painter (Florence) Bronzino, II (1503-72). Florentine Mannerist painter, pupil of J. da Pontormo. B. was painter to Cosimo I de' Medici, for whom he undertook decorative works and many court portraits, e.g. those of Eleanor of Toledo and her son, and I.ucrezia Panciatichi. He used fine rich colours but portrayed his sitters with unrelaxed posture and faces of inscrutable reserve. His allegorical paintings and religious subjects, which appear devoid of deep or religious feeling, show typical Mannerist figure elongation and include (Christ ill Limbo (1552) and Venus, Cupid, ToUy and Time, remarkable for its harshly metallic flesh tones against a brilliant blue background. B. also wrote poetry.
BROOKING, Charles
(c, 1723-1759)BaroqueEnglish painter (London)
BROUWER, Adriaen
(c. 1605-1638)BaroqueFlemish painter (Antwerp) Brouwer Adriaen (c. 1605—38). Flemish genre painter, mainly of low life, and landscape painter. He led a dissipated life and died of the plague at Antwerp. In his realistic, often dramatic, tavern scenes the vulgarities and rowdy emotions of the subjects are fully recorded. B. often used dark tones and thick, violent but economical brush-strokes; in his last years he painted sensitive impressionistic landscapes. B.'s genre pieces strongly influenced D. Teniers the Younger and A. van Ostade.
BROUWER, Gerloff
(c. 1627-1676)BaroqueDutch goldsmith (Amsterdam)
BROWN, Ford Madox
(1821-1893)RomanticismEnglish painter Brown Ford Madox(1821 -93). British painter, who was born m France and studied in Antwerp, Paris and Rome, where he met *Overbeck. He settled in London, and in 1848 Rossetti became his pupil and introduced him to the *Pre-Raphaehtes, who affected his work, e.g. Tlw Last of England (1855), but he was never a member of the Brotherhood. He was a partner in the firm of (William) Morris, Marshall, Faulkner and Co.
Brown Paul S. was born August 11, 1967 in the U.S. and currently resides in London, UK.
Bruegel. Family of Flemish painters flourishing in the 16th and 17th cs whose most important members are listed alphabetically below. Various spellings of the name have been used such as the later 'BreugcT and 'Brueghel'. The greatest of the family, Pieter B. the Elder, was also its founder.
BRUEGHEL, Jan the Elder
(c.1568-1625)MannerismFlemish painter (Antwerp) Bruegel Jan the Elder (1568—1625). Flemish painter, the son of P. B. the Elder; he painted flowers, landscapes and Garden of Eden subjects in a highly finished manner which won him the nickname 'Velvet B.'
BRUEGHEL, Jan the Younger
(1601-1678)BaroqueFlemish painter (Antwerp) Bruegel (Brueghel, Breugel) Jan the Younger(1600/02—78). Flemish painter, the close follower of his father, Jan B. the Elder. He often painted his highly finished flower studies and landscapes on copper.
BRUEGEL, Pieter the Elder
(c. 1525-1569)Northern RenaissanceNetherlandish painter Bruegel Pieter the Elder (ft. 1551—d. 1569). The last and one of the greatest of the early Netherlandish artists. B. was named after his birthplace, but there is no general agreement which of 3 possible villages this was. Moreover, his name is variously spelt. He signed his work Bruegel and Brueghel, while he was nicknamed 'Bruegel the Droll' or 'Peasant Bruegel', by later writers on art to distinguish him from other members of the family of painters he founded. Even the date of B.'s birth is uncertain, as are details of his training. Obviously an early influence on him was the work of Bosch (d. 15 16) and it is likely B. was apprenticed to P. Coccke van Aelst, whose daughter he married in 1563. He was a master of the Antwerp Guild in 1551. Shortly afterwards B. journeyed extensively in Italy, probably as far south as Sicily, returning through the Orisons and the Tyrol. After his marriage B. moved from Antwerp to Brussels. There is much conjecture but little evidence regarding his position and attitude during the early years of the rebellion against Spanish rule, the religious controversy and the horrors of civil war. When B. died he left a family of imitators. He had established almost all the categories of later Flemish painting and his own paintings were highly priced. Yet, despite the admiration of Rubens and the fact that most of his paintings were quickly acquired for royal colls, B.'s reputation declined until the great revival of interest in his work at the beginning of the 20th c. B. earned a living for many years with drawings for engravings publ. by the humanist printseller, Hieronymus Cock. He probably painted in watercolour technique, but this work has been lost. About 40 paintings in oil and a few in tempera on linen survive. Briefly, the outstanding feature of B.'s style is its independence of Italian models at the time when most of his contemporaries in the Netherlands were already Romanists. In colour he favoured a muted palette of blue-greens, blue-greys and a wide range of browns, frequently enlivening the picture with points of clear colour, often yellow or red. He extended painting to include the countryside in all seasons, moods and weathers, following medieval Books of Hours and tapestries. He also showed much the same sympathetic but unsentimental interest in those who worked on the land. Between the labourers and their environment B. manages to establish a wholly original relationship in visual terms, e.g. between the lean hunters and the countryside locked in winter — Hunters in the Snow, the feeling of well-being won from nature — The Corn Harvest', or a steel-cold winter's day providing the background to an act of human brutality — The Massacre of the Innocents. At times the landscape almost overpowers the activities of men, as the dramatic Alpine settings do in both life Suicide of Saul and 'The Conversion of St Paul, or the turbulent water in Storm at Sea. The Peasant Dance and Peasant Wedding provide 'close-tips' of the peasants' happier hours. Throughout his life B. used everyday sayings and proverbs to draw personal and highly sophisticated morals on the condition of man. The mastery he came to achieve over his vast material, observed and imagined, can nowhere be better seen than by comparing Ins early, over-crowded Netherlandish Proverbs with the brilliantly composed late work 1 lie Blind Leading the Blind. 2 works showing the power of his imagination at its greatest are Dulle Ciriet ami The Triumph of Death. The 1st, a satanic landscape peopled by all the devils of medieval folk-lore, has been a stimulus to poets, painters and also film producers in the 20th c, while 'The Triumph of Death, with its almost mechanical destruction of human life by thousands, has appeared grimly appropriate to aspects of our times.
BRUEGHEL, Pieter the Younger
(1564-1638)MannerismFlemish painter (Antwerp) Bruegel (Brueghel, Breugel) Pieter the Younger (c. 1564—1638). Flemish painter, the son of Pieter B. the Elder, he imitated the fantasy subjects of his father, earning the nickname 'Hell B.'. *Snyders was his pupil and his son, Pieter B. Ill, was also a painter.
BRUEGHEL, Abraham
(1631-1697)BaroqueFlemish painter (Italy) Brueghel Abraham(Antwerp 1631 - Naples 1690)
BRUEGHEL, Ambrosius
(1617-1675)BaroqueFlemish painter
BRUGGHEN, Hendrick ter (see TERBRUGGHEN, Hendrick)
(1588-1629)BaroqueDutch painter (Utrecht)
BRUGMAN, Willem Claesz.
(active 1641-1665)BaroqueDutch goldsmith (Delft)
BRUNELLESCHI, Filippo
(1377-1446)Early RenaissanceItalian sculptor (Florence)
Brunelleschi Filippo (b. 1377, Firenze, d. 1446, Firenze) Italian sculptor
Bruno di Majowas born in 1944 by italian parents in Tripoli, Lybia. He lives and works in Tuscany, Italy. (Fantastic realism, Vienna School of Fantastic realism).
Brus Gunter(born September 27, 1938, Ardning, Styria) is an Austrian painter, graphic artist and writer. (Happenings, Performance art, Fluxus).
BRUSASORZI, Domenico
(1516-1567)High RenaissanceItalian painter (Verona)
Bruskin Grishawas born in 1945 in Moscow. Like the majority of Jews of his generation in the Soviet Union he was growing up in complete ignorance of his Jewish heritage until he started studying Jewish tradition in the 70s. Until today the myth of Judaism and the myth of communism have remained his two central topics which he treats in series of paintings and sculptures. Bruskin is ranking among the most celebrated contemporary Russian artists, since his works achieved sensational results at the 1988 auction of Sotheby's in Moscow.
Parallel to painting (his most renown works are the Alefbet and Fundamental Lexicon series and the monumental triptych Life Over All in the Berlin Reichstag) Bruskin develops traditional arts and crafts techniques as artistic media. In the style of Soviet chinaware (which was often employed to convey propagandistic statements) he created for instance the cycles Alphabetic Truths (34 porcelain plates, 1998) or Life is Everywhere (25 porcelain sculptures, 1998-99). With On the Edge his present series of bronze sculptures Bruskin returns to larger sculptures. By pursuing motives from Soviet monuments, which were omni-present during his youth and had already inspired paintings from the late 70s on, he investigates with subtle irony the complex implications of depiction and deliverance.
Bruskin's complex work does not only scrutinize the significant myths of Judaism and the Soviet Union but also refers to the problem of alienation of the individual from the society and his vulnerability to the catastrophe and transitoriness of cultural contexts.
BRUSTOLON, Andrea
(1662-1732)BaroqueItalian cabinet-maker (Venice) Brustolon Andrea(b Belluno, 20 July 1662; d Belluno, 25 Oct 1732). Italian sculptor and draughtsman. He worked almost exclusively in wood. His first teacher was his father, Jacopo Brustolon (d 1709), also a sculptor, and he then trained with the painter Agostino Ridolfi (1646–1727). In 1677 Andrea was sent to Venice to the workshop of Filippo Parodi, to whose elegance, dynamism and technical virtuosity he was always indebted, although he soon established his own style. Brustolon came from an alpine area that had a long tradition of craftsmanship in wood. His achievement was to transpose techniques that had been associated with everyday craftsmanship on to the highest artistic level

BRUYN, Barthel
(1493-1555)Northern RenaissanceGerman painter (Cologne)
Bruyn, Guillaume de (1649-1719)
Brygos. Prominent Greek painter of the early 5th c. bc so called because 5 cups decorated by him have the potter's mark Brygos epoisen — 'made by Brygos'. About 170 vessels have been identified as painted by him. Stylistic characteristics are violent movement, tenseness of line in drapery folds and economy of line in depicting mule figures. His style was much imitated.
BRYULLOV, Aleksandr Pavlovich
(1798-1877)RomanticismRussian painter
BRYULLOV, Karl Pavlovich
(1799-1852)RomanticismRussian painter Brullov Karl Pavlovitch(born Dec. 12 [Dec. 23, Old Style], 1799, St. Petersburg, Russia
died June 11 [June 23], 1852, Marsciano, near Rome, Papal States [Italy] )original name Charles Bruleau , Bryullov also spelled Briullov, Bryulov, Brulov, Brullov , or Brulow Russian painter who combined technical proficiency and classical academic training with a Romantic spontaneity to produce some of the liveliest examples of Russian art of the period. Bryullov was descended from French Huguenots, and his father was a sculptor. (The family name was Russified in 1821.) Bryullov was educated at the St. Petersburg Academy of Fine Arts (1809–21). He studied in Italy from 1823, painting his best-known work, the monumental “Last Day of Pompeii” (1830–33), while there; it brought him an international reputation. Though he painted other large canvases with historical subjects, none was as successful as“ Pompeii.” Much of his continuing reputation rests on his more intimate portraits and his watercolours and travel sketches.
Buetti Daniele(born 1956 in Fribourg) is a Swiss artist currently residing in Berlin and Zurich. Since the 1980s, Buetti has been working with multimedia such as tinted photographs of glamorous celebrities, brand names and lightboxes in order to create powerful, thought-provoking art. Exhibitions of his work have been featured in galleries worldwide. Daniele Buetti gets pictures airbrushed beautiful women and scars their faces to show emotion and feelings within the work.
Buffet Bernard(1928- ). French painter who trained at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts, Paris. The expressive draughtsmanship of his early near-monochromatic paintings has become — under the pressure of his phenomenal public success — a mannerism.
Bunce Kate Elizabeth(1856-1927). The Pre-Raphaelite.
Buonarroti Michelangelo. *Michelangelo
BUDAPEST MASTER (see MASTER of Budapest)
(active c. 1500)Early RenaissanceSpanish painter (Castile)
BUECKELAER, Joachim (see BEUCKELAER, Joachim)
(1530-1574)MannerismFlemish painter (Antwerp)
BUFFALMACCO, Bounamico
(active 1315-1336)MedievalItalian painter (Pisa)
BUGIARDINI, Giuliano
(1475-1554)High RenaissanceItalian painter (Florence)
BUGLIONI, Benedetto
(c. 1459-1521)Early RenaissanceItalian sculptor (Florence)
BUHL, André-Charles (see BOULLE, André-Charles)
(1642-1732)BaroqueFrench cabinet-maker (Paris)
BULGARINI, Bartolommeo
(active 1337-1378)MedievalItalian painter (Siena)
BUON, Bartolomeo (see BON, Bartolomeo)
(active 1421-1464)Early RenaissanceItalian sculptor
BUON, Giovanni (see BON, Giovanni)
(c. 1355-c. 1443)Early RenaissanceItalian sculptor
BUONAMICI, Agostino (see TASSI, Agostino)
(1578-1644)BaroqueItalian painter (Rome)
BUONCONSIGLIO, Giovanni
(c. 1465-c. 1535)Early RenaissanceItalian painter (Venice)
BUONERI, Francesco (see CECCO DEL CARAVAGGIO)
(active 1610s)BaroqueFrench painter (Rome)
BURCH, Cornelis Jansz. van der Burch
(active 1579-1614)BaroqueDutch goldsmith (Delft)
BURCH, Hendrick van der
(1627-c. 1666)BaroqueDutch painter (Delft)
BURGH, Hendrick van der (see BURCH, Hendrick van der)
(1627-c. 1666)BaroqueDutch painter (Delft)
Burgin Victor(born 1941) is an artist and a writer. Burgin was born in Sheffield in England. He studied art at the Royal College of Art, in London,from 1962 to 1965 (A.R.C.A., 1st Class, 1965) before going to the United States to study at Yale University (M.F.A. 1967). He taught at Trent Polytechnic from 1967 to 1973 and at the School of Communication, Polytechnic of Central London from 1973 to 1988. From 1988 to 2001 Burgin lived and worked in San Francisco . He taught in the History of Consciousness program at the University of California, Santa Cruz, where he became Professor Emeritus of History of Consciousness]. In 2000 he was Robert Gwathmey Chair in Art and Architecture, The Cooper Union for the Advancement of Science and Art, New York. In 2001, he was appointed Millard Professor of Fine Art at Goldsmiths College, University of London. Burgin has also taught at the European Graduate School in Saas-Fee, Switzerland. In 2005 he received an Honorary Degree of Doctor of Sheffield Hallam University (Hon. DUniv). Burgin first came to attention as a conceptual artist in the late 1960s. He has worked with photography and film, calling painting "the anachronistic daubing of woven fabrics with coloured mud". His work is influenced by theorists and philosophers such as Karl Marx, Sigmund Freud, Michel Foucault and Roland Barthes. In 1986, Burgin was nominated for the Turner Prize for his exhibitions at the Institute of Contemporary Arts and Kettle's Yard Gallery in Cambridge and for a collection of his theoretical writings (The End of Art Theory) and a monograph of his visual work (Between).
BURGKMAIR, Hans
(1473-1531)Northern RenaissanceGerman painter (Augsburg) Burgkmair Hans(1473-1531). German painter of portraits and religious subjects and woodcut designer. Fie studied under his father Thomas and *Schongauer and was a friend of Durer. He was affected by Venetian painting and was one of the 1st Germans whose work showed Italian influence. He is best remembered for his striking woodcuts, e.g. the 2 series Triumph of the Emperor Maximilian I with 135 cuts and The Wise King with 337.
Burliuk the brothers David (1882-1967) and Vladimir (188?— 1917). Prominent Russian Futurists. They studied painting first in Odessa and then in Munich under Azbe. In 1907 in Moscow they came into contact with Exter, Goncharova and Larionov, with whom they organized a number of small exhibitions. In iyio they contributed to the 1st anthology of Russian Futurist poetry; they made friends with Kandinsky, subsequently contributing to *Blaue Reiter exhibitions and Almanac. In 1911 David met Mayakovsky and encouraged him to write poetry; subsequently they together devoted themselves to writing and propaganda for the 'new art'. In 1918 David left Russia and later worked in the U.S.A. in a primitivist style.
Burne-Jones Edward Coley(1833-98). British painter and decorative artist who became a painter under the influence of D. G. Rossetti and was associated with the second, 'romantic' phase of Pre-Raphaelitism. He was strongly affected by Botticelli and Mantegna when visiting Italy in 1859 and 1862. B. lacked the vigour and social ideals of the Pre-Raphaelites; based on literary themes, chiefly from Greek mythology, Chaucer and Malory, his mystic, romantic and unhistorical pictures represented a dream world of escape from 19th-c. industrialism. He worked in subdued tones and a linear manner which contributed to Art Nouveau. He made influential designs for stained glass for his friend W. *Morris, for whom he also ill. books, e.g. the Kelmscott Press Chaucer (1897).
BURGOS, Juan de
(active 1450s)Early RenaissanceSpanish painter (León)
Burra Edward (1905-76). British painter and theatrical designer; member of Unit I (1933). The work of Signorelli and Goya, Grosz and the Surrealists, influenced the development of his fantastic, richly imaginative art, winch also mirrored his love of Spain and Mexico. B. first specialized in scenes of the underworld, exposing the decadence and disillusionment which existed between the wars but also indulging his taste for the flamboyant and bizarre. With the Spanish Civil War and World War II his work acquired menacing and tragic overtones. Fie worked in watercolour, usually on a large scale.
Burri Alberto (1915-95). Italian painter. After medical studies he began painting while a prisoner of war in Texas — an experience which had a strong formative influence on his work and, in part, dictated his choice of such seemingly unpromising materials as torn sacking, rusty metal and burnt wood, e.g. Legno Nero e Rosso (1960).

Bury Pol(April 26, 1922-September 28, 2005, Paris, France) was a Belgian sculptor. (Kinetic art). Pol Bury began his artistic career as a painter, working in the Jeune Peintre Belge group and the Cobra group. In 1953, he took up sculpture and was one of the leading artists of the Kinetic sculpture movement. Four years later, Bury was incorporating electric motors into his sculptures. Later, he worked as a filmmaker and stage designer.
BURY, Friedrich
(1761-1823)NeoclassicismGerman painter
BUS, Sylvius (see BOS, Cornelis)
(c. 1510-c. 1566)Northern RenaissanceFlemish graphic artist (Antwerp)
BUSHNELL, John
(c. 1630-1701)BaroqueEnglish sculptor
BUSI, Giovanni (see CARIANI)
(1485-1547)High RenaissanceItalian painter (Venice)
BUSIRI, Giovanni Battista
(1698-1757)BaroqueItalian painter (Rome)
BUSTI, Agostino (see BAMBAIA)
(1483-1548)High RenaissanceItalian sculptor (Milan)
BUTINONE, Bernardino Jacopi
(c. 1436-c. 1507)Early RenaissanceItalian painter (Lombardy) Butinone Bernardino(fl. 1484-1507). Italian painter, who worked in Treviglio and Milan. B. was early influenced by Mantegna, later by Vincenzo Foppa, but his work retains traces of Lombard Gothic. In collaboration with *Zenale he painted frescoes in S. Pietro in Gessate, Milan (r. 1489-93) and an altarpiece at Treviglio. Other work includes a triptych (1484).
BUTTERI, Giovanni Maria
(c. 1540-c. 1606)MannerismItalian painter (Florence)
BUYS, Jacobus
(1724-1801)RococoDutch graphic artist (Amsterdam)
BUYTEWECH, Willem Pietersz.
(1591/92-1625)BaroqueDutch painter (Haarlem)

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The Metropolitan Museum of Art Has Great Influence on Art's History
By Mike Selvon

When making plans to visit New York City, whether for a family vacation or for a business trip, it is difficult not to run across plenty of information and promotions about the Metropolitan Museum of Art. This world-class museum is one of the largest anywhere, as well as being one of the best known, and it is where some of the most wonderful collections of fine art anywhere in the world are housed.

The collections that are housed in this New York museum are comprised of more than two million works of amazing art. This stunning supply of art treasures spans more than 5,000 years of world history and culture that comes from every corner the globe. The "Met," as it is popularly called, especially by locals, was founded in 1870 and it is located along the eastern edge of New York City's Central Park, situated on Fifth Avenue. Each year it receives millions of visitors.

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