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  Old Masters  
  Dulle Griet (Mad Meg) c. 1562 (200 Kb); Oil on panel, 117.4 x 162 cm; Museum Mayer van den Bergh, Antwerp
Pieter Bruegel the Elder, generally considered the greatest Flemish painter of the 16th century, is by far the most important member of the family.
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This section will provide you with historic artists whose art formed a culture of their own. The true values of their arts has been established over the long years since the passing of the old masters, and styles replicated and improved many times along the way.

Studio Treasure has historical information as well as artistic analysis of many artworks composed by the old masters. Artists such as Pieter Bruegel The Elder, Pavel Nikolaevich Filonov, Caspar David Friedrich, Odilon Redon, Vincent Van Gogh, have their own articles on the left, and external links are provided to other outside sources for more information on many other artists below.



Art History Culture Museums Artists Old Masters Gallery oil-painting etching drawing sculpture Giotto di Bondone Jan van Eyck Roger Van der Weyden Piero della Francesca Andrea Mantegna Alessandro Botticelli Hieronymus Bosch Leonardo da Vinci Albrecht Durer Lucas Cranach the Elder Michelangelo Buonarroti Titian Raphael Hans Holbein The Younger Jacopo Tintoretto Paolo Veronese El Greco Caravaggio Peter Paul Rubens Frans Snyders Nicolas Poussin Francisco de Zurbaran Anthony Van Dyck Diego Velazquez Rembrandt van Rijn Jan Vermeer Giovanni Battista Tiepolo Jean Chardin Joshua Reynolds Francisco Goya Jacques-Louis David masterpiece Odilon Redon ancient art abstract expressionism art deco art nouveau Barbizon School baroque Bauhaus byzantine classicism Pieter Bruegel The Elder fauvism Gothic impressionism mannerism Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood Realism, Renaissance Rococo romanticism surrealism Pavel Filonov symbolism

AACHEN, Hans von
(1552-1615) German Mannerism painter and draughtsman, active also in Italy and Bohemia. One of the foremost painters of the circle gathered at the Prague court of Emperor Rudolf II, he synthesized Italian and Netherlandish influences in his portraits and erudite allegories.
(1894—1966) Finnish sculptor and painter and a major force in modern Finnish sculpture. His work in granite is classical in line despite its monumental character. Besides a number of female torsos and portrait heads, A. executed public monuments.
ABADIA, Juan de la
(active 1470-1490) Early Renaissance Spanish painter from Huesca.
(c 1500-1564) High Renaissance French potter
ABBATE, Niccolò dell'
(1509-1571) Mannerism Italian painter, worked in France (from 1552) and was, with Primaticcio, a leader of the school of *Fontainebleau. Abbate was stylistically influenced by the illusionism of Mantegna and the softness of Correggio, but more important was his characteristically Mannerist treatment of landscape, as in the Rape of Proserpine. There are similarities in his work to Dosso Dossi and also Patenier and the Antwerp school, and Abbate  himself introduced Mannerism in landscape into France. Abbate’s major picture is The Story of Aristacus.
ABBEY Edwin Austin
(1852-1911) U.S. painter, R.A. of Britain. Abbey illustrated works by Robert Hernck, Oliver Goldsmith and Shakespeare, and painted the scenes of The Quest of the Holy Grail on the walls of the public library, Boston, Mass.
ABBOTT John White
(1763-1851) British landscape painter.
ABBOTT Lemuel Francis
(c. 1760-1803) British portrait painter, known for his portraits of Lord Nelson and the poet Cowper.
(1743-1809) Romanticism Danish painter. Abilgaard studied in Italy (1772—9). His style was classical and he favoured heroic subjects. Abilgaard painted little after 4 allegorical frescoes by him in the Royal Palace, Copenhagen, which he considered his best work, were burnt in 1794. Sketches of these together with many other works are preserved in the Royal Gallery, Copenhagen. B. Thorwaldsen was his pupil.
(1940— ) U.S. artist and poet. Acconci turned to *Performance, *Installation and *Action and Body art (1969) attracted by the experimentation of groups such as The Judson Church, and the conceptual framework established by such artists as *LeWitt, *Andre, R. *Morris, *Kosuth, *Weiner, D. Graham, *Oppenhenn and *Burden. Acconci‘s most notorious work in the 1970s was Seedbed (1972) in which he lay under the floor of the gallery loudly voicing his sexual fantasies while masturbating. In the 1980s he started making constructions, e.g. Sub-Urb (1983) and furniture, e.g. Sleeping Dog Couch (1984).
ADAM, Lambert-Sigisbert
(1700-1759) French Baroque sculptor, son of the sculptor Jacob-Sigisbert ADAM (1670-1747). In Rome (1723-33), he was strongly influenced by Bernini. His fountain Iriomphe de Neptune et d'Aniphitrile (1740) is at Versailles.
ADAM, Nicolas-Sébastien
(1705-1778) French Baroque sculptor from Nancy.
ADAMI Valerio
(1935— ) Italian painter sometimes associated with European *Pop art. His paintings, frequently of bourgeois interiors, are in flat, bold colours, with objects outlined by strong, black lines. This allows an ironic play between figurative subject matter and abstract forms.
ADAM Robert
(1728-1792) Architect and designer, son of William Adam. He and his rival William Chambers were the leading British architects in the second half of the 18th century. After training under his father, he embarked on a Grand Tour in 1754; this ended early in 1758 when he settled in London rather than Edinburgh. There he established a practice that was transformed into a partnership with his younger brother James after the latter’s return in 1763 from his own Grand Tour. By then, however, the Adam style was formed, and Robert remained the partnership’s driving force and principal designer until his death. He not only developed a distinctive and highly influential style but also further refined it through his large number of commissions, earning fame and a certain amount of fortune along the way. Eminently successful, he left an indelible stamp on British architecture and interior decoration and on international Neoclassicism.
ADAMS Herbert
(1858-1945). U.S. sculptor, who studied in Paris. Adams's work includes the tympanum of St Bartholomew's Church, N.Y. (1902).
ADAM-SALOMON Antony-Samuel
(1818—81). French portrait photographer and sculptor. His photographs with their use of heavy *chiairoscuro effects were praised for their approximation to 17th-c. Dutch paintings.
ADLER Jankel
(1895-1949) Polish painter. Was influenced by Picasso and Leger. He travelled widely in Europe teaching for a tune at the Dusseldorf Academy with Klee and working with *Hayter at *Atelier 17.
(1599-1652) Flemish Baroque painter.
(1587-1661) Flemish Baroque painter from Antwerp.
AELST, Willem van
(c. 1626-1683) Dutch Baroque still-life painter from Delft. He was a good draughtsman and vivid colounst. Aelst's still—lifesare distinguishable from those of other Dutch painters, being frequently littered with bric-a-brac of Renaissance antiquariamsm.
AENVANCK, Theodoor
(1633-1690) Flemish Baroque painter (Antwerp)
(active 1490-1536)Northern Renaissance Flemish glass painter
(1508-1575) Northern Renaissance Flemish painter, working in Antwerp and Amsterdam, whose detailed and colourful genre and still-life paintings were highly popular and also stylistically influential on the 17th-century Netherlands genre school. Many of his religious paintings have been destroyed.
AGASSE, Jacques-Laurent
(1767-1849) Neoclassicism Swiss painter (London)
(active 1310-1347) Medieval Italian sculptor (Siena)
(c. 1490-c. 1536) High Renaissance Italian graphic artist
AGAR Eileen  
(1899—1991) Born in Buenos Aires, settled in Britain 1911. Prominent among British Surrealist painters, who also made sculptures and assemblages: her work was included in the International Surrealist Exhibition, London 1936, and all other subsequent major exhibitions surveying Surrealism.
AGNOLO Andrea del * Andrea del Sarto  
AGOSTINO di Duccio
(1418—81). Florentine sculptor mainly ot reliefs, possibly a pupil of J. della Quercia. His earliest independent work was probably the altar (completed by 1442) in Modena cathedral. His major work is at the Tempio Malatestiano, Rimini (architect *Alberti, painter Piero della Francesca). A.'s style is essentially linear, his relief work is flat with no attempt at lllusionism. 
AQUILLON Franciscus
AIVAZOVSKY, Ivan Konstantinovich
(1817-1900) Realism Russian painter
(?-c. 1457) Medieval Greek painter (Crete)
ALBA, Macrino d'
(c. 1460 - c. 1528) Early Renaissance Italian painter (Alba)
ALBANI, Francesco
(1578-1660) Baroque Italian painter working at Bologna and Rome and popular with his contemporaries for graceful, if somewhat sentimental, religious and mythological paintings. He studied first under the Flemish painter *Calvaert and then at the Carracci Academy.
(1899 - 1994) Textile designer, draughtsman and printmaker, wife of Josef Albers. She studied art under Martin Brandenburg (b 1870) in Berlin from 1916 to 1919, at the Kunstgewerbeschule in Hamburg (1919–20) and at the Bauhaus in Weimar (1922–25) and Dessau (1925–29). In 1925 she married Josef Albers, with whom she settled in the USA in 1933 after the closure of the Bauhaus, and from 1933 to 1949 she taught at Black Mountain College in North Carolina; she became a US citizen in 1937. Her Bauhaus training led her as early as the 1920s to produce rectilinear abstract designs based on colour relationships, such as Design for Rug for Child’s Room (gouache on paper, 1928; New York, MOMA), but it was during her period at Black Mountain College that she began producing her most original work, including fabrics made of unusual materials such as a mixture of jute and cellophane (1945–50; New York, MOMA) or of mixed warp and heavy linen weft with jute, cotton and aluminium (1949; New York, MOMA). She began producing prints in 1963, using lithography, screenprinting, etching and aquatint and inkless intaglio.
ALBERS Josef  
(1888-1976) German painter and designer. After an academic training in Berlin, Essen and Munich, he studied at the *Bauhaus and was later invited by Gropius to teach there. His 1st work included pictures in glass, furniture and abstracts. In 1933 he went to the U.S.A. and developed a new free abstract style (Etude in Red-Violet, 1935), later became interested in the manipulation of colour (his series of Variantes from 1947), and developed as the doyen of U.S. geometric abstractionists (Homage to the Square: in secret, 1962). Albers was always an experimental artist, his work being closely related to his practice as a teacher. In 1955he became chairman of the Design Department at Yale Univ.
ALBEREGNO, Jacobello
(died before1397) Medieval Italian painter (Venice)
ALBERTI, Leon Battista
(1404-1472) Early Renaissance Italian humanist and architect born in Genoa. In Florence (c. 1428) he formed friendships with *Donatello, *Ghiberti, *Robbia and *Masaccio to whom he dedicated his important treatise on painting, Delia Pittura (1436) containing the first description of *perspective in depiction. As a great humanist, he stressed the rational and scientific nature of the arts, departing from religious symbolism or function, and urging a return to classical modes.
(1474-1515) Early Renaissance Florentine painter. He was close friend of, and collaborator with, Fra *Bartolommeo, whom he met in the atelier of *Rosselli. Their partnership broke up about 1512, when A. became an innkeeper. With a technique sometimes indistinguishable from Bartolommeo's A.'s best independent "work is his Visitation (1503).
Le Loraine (1897-1983) U.S. painter born in Chicago. Studied in Chicago and at National Academy of Design, N.Y. He evolved a personal, naturalistic style outside the mainstream of modern art. Worked slowly and meticulously, drawing on experience of seamy life in Chicago where he lived.
ALBOTTO, Francesco
(1721-1757) Baroque Italian painter (Venice)
(late 5th ˝. BC). Athenian sculptor, a pupil of Phidias. The group Procne and Itys is attributed to him, and he may have collaborated in the sculptures for the Parthenon.
ALCIBAR, José de
(1725/30-1803) Mexican Baroque painter
(1502- 555) German engraver and painter who worked on a small scale, greatly influenced by *Durer.
(1522-1605) Mannerism Italian graphic artist (Bologna)   
(1927- ) Belgian painter; he studied painting in Brussels and engraving with *Hayter in Paris. One of the founders of the international *Cobra group (1948). 
ALEN William Van
(1888-1954)  American architect. While studying at the Pratt Institute in Brooklyn, he was apprenticed to Clarence True, a speculative builder in New York, after which he joined the local firm of Copeland & Dole and later Clinton & Russell. Van Alen also studied under Donn Barber (1871–1925) at the Beaux-Arts Institute in New York and in 1908 won a fellowship to the Ecole des Beaux-Arts in Paris, where he studied under Victor A. F. Laloux. From 1911 to 1925 he was in partnership with H. Craig Severance (1879–1941) in Manhattan.
ALEIJADINHO (see LISBOA, Antonio Francisco)
(1738-1814) Rococo Portuguese sculptor (Brazil)
(1807-1845) Neoclassicism Spanish painter and illustrator. He studied at the Real Academia de S Fernando, Madrid, under Juan Antonio Ribera y Fernández and José de Madrazo y Agudo. He worked independently of court circles and achieved some fame but nevertheless died in such poverty that his burial was paid for by friends. He is often described as the last of the followers of Goya, in whose Caprichos and drawings he found inspiration for the genre scenes for which he became best known. Of these scenes of everyday life and customs the more interesting include The Beating (Madrid, Casón Buen Retiro) and Galician with Puppets (c. 1835; Madrid, Casón Buen Retiro). Alenza y Nieto’s numerous drawings include the illustrations for Alain-René Lesage’s Gil Blas (Madrid, 1840), for an edition of the poems of Francisco de Quevedo published by Castello and for the reviews Semanario pintoresco and El Reflejo. The painting Triumph of David (1842; Madrid, Real Acad. S Fernando, Mus.) led to his election as an Académico de mérito at the Real Academia de S Fernando in 1842, and he produced such portraits as that of Alejandro de la Pena (Madrid, Real Acad. S Fernando, Mus.) and a Self-portrait (Madrid, Casón Buen Retiro). His two canvases entitled Satire on Romantic Suicide (Madrid, Mus. Romántico) are perhaps the most characteristic of his works.
ALGARDI, Alessandro
(1598-1654) Baroque Bolognese sculptor. After studying at the Carracci Academy he settled r. 1625 in Rome, where his friends included *Domenichino, N. *Poussm and *Sacchi. A. excelled as a portraitist, particularly in the depth of his character analysis, e.g his Francesco Bracciolini.Although A.'s approach was classical and although he was Bernini's chief rival, his statue of Innocent X was influenced by the bitter's Urban VIII and above all his tomb for Leo XI (1645/50) is the first of many to be modelled on Bernini's for Urban. From 1646 to 1653 A. was working on his relief of The Meeting of Attila and Leo I. With its modulation from the free-standing figures of the foreground to the shallow relief of the background, this was to be influential on later relief technique.
(1556-1629) Mannerism Italian painter (Venice)
(1400/10-1460) Northern Renaissance Flemish painter (Valencia)
(1785—1851) Danish artist settled in Britain. He was a prolific painter and water-colourist of hunting, coaching and shooting scenes and produced a famous series of aquatint prints. The quality of his work declined in the 1820s.
ALLADIO, Gian Giacomo de (see ALBA, Macrino d')
(c. 1460-c. 1528) Early Renaissance Italian painter (Alba)
ALLAN Sir William
(7782—1850) Scottish history painter admired by Walter Scott. Allan and *Wilkie were largely responsible for establishing Scottish historical genre painting.
ALLEGRAIN, Christophe-Gabriel
(1710-1795) Rococo French sculptor (Paris)
(1644-1736) Baroque French painter (Paris)
(c. 1490-1534) High Renaissance Italian painter (Parma)
ALLORI, Alessandro
(1535-1607) Mannerism Florentine painter. Used the name Bronzino after the death of his uncle, II *Bronzino. Studied under Bronzino and in Rome under Michelangelo. Although his drawing was rigid and his colouring cold he was popular as a painter of decorative frescoes into which he inserted portraits of prominent contemporaries. Cristofano (1577—1621), Mannerist painter, son of Alessandro. His painting united the rich colouring of the Venetian with the careful drawing of the Florentine school. His best-known painting is Judith with the Head of Holojemes. Judith is a portrait of his mistress Mazzafirra, while Holofernes is supposed to be a self-portrait.
ALLORI, Cristofano
(1577-1621) Baroque Italian painter (Florence)
ALLSTON, Washington
(1779-1843) Romanticism American painter and writer. In Europe (1801-10, 1811-18), he studied under B. West in London and visited Pans and Kome, becoming a close friend of S. T. Coleridge, W. Irving and B. Thorwaldsen. As the 1st U.S. artist to paint romantic landscapes he was a precursor of the *Hudson River school; he also painted portraits, e.g. that of Coleridge, and large dramatic biblical and classical subjects. His Lectures on Art were publ. in 1850. 
(1836-1912) Netherlands academic painter who settled in London (1870). He was very popular for his idealized, but accurately detailed and brilliantly coloured, scenes of Greek and Roman life.
(1400/10-1460) Northern Renaissance Flemish painter (Valencia)
ALMONACID, Sebastián de
(c. 1460-1526) Early Renaissance Spanish sculptor
ALSLOOT, Denis van
(1570-1628) Baroque Flemish painter who specialized in pageant and procession scenes.
(c. 1480-1538) Northern Renaissance German painter and city architect and councillor of Regensburg, Bavaria. His St George is one of the first true landscape paintings in Europe. In it a mass of forest foliage soars above the tiny figures of St George and the dragon. Even in his early works, which show influences of L. Cranach and Durer, landscape predominates, and a tour of the Danube and the Austrian Alps (c 1511) confirmed his inclinations. An immediate result was the series of canvases, drawings and etchings of Danube landscapes (*Danube school). Other major works are Alexander's Victory, also called the Battle of Arbela (1529), and the Si Vlorian Altar. This was eight panels depicting the life of St Plorian, painted for St Florian's church, near Linz, Austria. Seven of the panels are now in colls elsewhere; the Germanisches N.-Mus., Nuremberg; the Uffizi; and a private coll.
(c. 1547-1617) Northern Renaissance German goldsmith (Augsburg)
(c. 1330-c. 1390)Medieval Italian painter (Verona) (fl. 1369-84). Italian painter from Verona. His figures are reminiscent of Giotto's style but show a greater awareness of one another suggestive of later painters. There are frescoes by him in Verona and Padua including a great Crucifixion in the church of Sant'Antonio, Padua.
(1889 – 1970) Russian Avant-garde artist, Cubist painter, stage designer and book illustrator.
(1657-1745) Baroque Austrian painter
(active 1411-1434) Early Renaissance Portuguese painter (Italy)
AMADEO, Giovanni Antonio (see OMODEO, Giovanni Antonio)
(1447-1522) Early Renaissance Italian sculptor (1447-1522). Italian sculptor and architect. He was principally active in Bergamo, Cremona, Milan and Pavia. His professional success, in terms of the architectural and sculptural commissions and official appointments that he received, was far greater than that of any of his contemporaries in Lombardy in the late 15th century, including Bramante. Amadeo’s influence in both fields, for example in his use of all’antica ornament of local origin, was considerable.
(1858-1936). French painter, pastellist and printmaker. He studied from 1880 under the academic painter Henri Lehmann at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts in Paris; there he befriended Georges Seurat with whom he shared a studio for several years. He also studied under Pierre Puvis de Chavannes, working as his assistant on the Sacred Grove (1884; Lyon, Mus. B.-A.). In 1886 he obtained a travel scholarship to Rome and on his return befriended Symbolist poets such as Stephane Mallarme, Paul Verlaine and Philippe-Auguste Villiers de l’Isle Adam. While the poets sought to subvert language in order to express new sensations, Aman-Jean relied on pictorial and iconographic traditions. He specialized in pictures of languid young women turned in profile to the left or gazing into space, as in Girl with Peacock (1895; Paris, Mus. A. Dec.), using broken brushstrokes and colour contrasts that by then had largely shed their avant-garde connotations. Typical works such as the colour lithograph Beneath the Flowers (1897; Paris, Bib. N.) and the portrait of Mlle Thadie C. Jacquet (1892; Paris. Mus. d’Orsay) led the critic Camille Mauclair to identify him as an heir to the English Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood.
AMANO Yashitaka
(1952- ) Japanese artist known for his illustrations for Vampire Hunter D and for his character designs, image illustrations and title logo designs for the Final Fantasy video game series developed by Square Enix (formerly Square).
AMAURY-DUVAL Eugene-Emmanuel
(1806-1885) French painter and writer. A student of Ingres, he first exhibited at the Salon in 1830 with a portrait of a child. He continued exhibiting portraits until 1868. Such entries as M. Geoffroy as Don Juan (1852; untraced), Rachel, or Tragedy (1855; Paris, Mus. Comédie-Fr.) and Emma Fleury (1861; untraced) from the Comédie-Française indicate an extended pattern of commissions from that institution. His travels in Greece and Italy encouraged the Néo-Grec style that his work exemplifies. Such words as refinement, delicacy, restraint, elegance and charm pepper critiques of both his painting and his sedate, respectable life as an artist, cultural figure and writer in Paris. In contrast to Ingres’s success with mature sitters, Amaury-Duval’s portraits of young women are his most compelling. In them, clear outlines and cool colours evoke innocence and purity. Though the portraits of both artists were influenced by classical norms, Amaury-Duval’s have control and civility in contrast to the mystery and sensuousness of Ingres’s.
AMASIS painter
Greek potter and vase painter in the *black-figured style; his figures are lithe, vigorous and witty.
AMBERGER, Christoph
(1505-1562) Northern Renaissance German portrait painter whose work shows Venetian influence. Working in Augsburg he painted many famous people, including the Emperor Charles V (1532).
AMMAN Jo(b)st (1539-1591)
Swiss woodcut artist and painter who settled in Nuremberg (1561), where he became a prolific ill. He executed woodcut ills for S. Feyerabend's Bible (1564) and a set of 115 for a series on arts and trades. 
Greek vase painter in the *red-figured style. 
(1453-1523) High Renaissance Italian painter (Lombardy)
AMERLING, Friedrich von
(1803-1887) Romanticism Austrian painter (Vienna)
(1682-1752) Venetian Rococo painter who worked in various European countries and during his own lifetime was very popular.
AMMANATI, Bartolomeo
(1511-1592) Mannerism Florentine sculptor and architect. In Florence he carved the Neptune fountain (1563-77) in the Piazza della Signoria and built the famous Bridge of the Trinity (1567-9), destroyed in an air raid (1944), but since rebuilt, and extensions (1560—77) to the Pitti Palace. There are also buildings by A. in Rome and Lucca. 
(1823-1903) French Pre-Raphaelite Painter 
(active 1343-1377) Medieval Italian painter (Florence)
 ANDREA da Firenze Andrea di Bonaiuto
(1346-1379) Italian painter.
(1388-1455) Early Renaissance Italian sculptor (Florence)
(1462-1502) Early Renaissance Italian painter (Venice)
(1423-1457) Early Renaissance Italian painter. He was the most influential 15th-century Florentine master, after Masaccio, of the realistic rendering of the figure and the representation of the human body as a three-dimensional solid by means of contours. By translating into the terms of painting the statues of the Florentine sculptors Nanni di Banco and Donatello, Castagno set Florentine painting on a course dominated by line (the Florentine tradition of disegno), the effect of relief and the sculptural depiction of the figure that became its distinctive trait throughout the Italian Renaissance, a trend that culminated in the art of Michelangelo.
(1486-1530) High Renaissance Florentine painter with feeling for tone and colour characteristic of the Venetian rather than the Florentine school. Invited by Francis I to Paris (1518) he returned to Florence (1519) to his wife. His life and works were much studied and admired in the 19th ˝ and Browning's poem Andrea del Sarto was a sensitive and acceptable picture of a gifted, irresolute and reflective man. A.'s frescoes Birth of the Virgin (1514) and Madonna del Sacco (1525), both in S. Annunziata church, Florence, are perfect examples of the High Renaissance. Other major works include Madonna delle Arpie (1517), classical in style, and the Holy Family was a favourite theme. Among his pupils were the Mannerists da *Pontormo and G. B. Rosso.
(1360/70-1428) Early Renaissance Italian painter (Siena)
ANDREA di Vanni d'Andrea
(1332-1414) Medieval Italian painter (Siena)
(1465-1553) High Renaissance Italian potter (Gubbio)
(1742-1819) Rococo Dutch painter (Amsterdam)
ANDROUET DU CERCEAU, Jacques the Elder
(1515-1584) Mannerism French graphic artist
ANGEL, Pedro
(1583-1617) Baroque Spanish graphic artist
ANGELI, Filippo d' (see NAPOLETANO, Filippo)
(1589-1629) Baroque Italian painter (Rome)
ANGELI, Giuseppe
(1712-1798) Baroque Italian painter (Venice)
(1400-1455) Early Renaissance Italian painter Angelico Fra(Giovanni da Fiesole). He celebrated for his frescoes in the convent of S. Marco, Florence. In 1407 he entered the Dominican convent of S. Domenico, Fiesole, near Florence, of which he was later prior (1449-52). Papal politics forced the community to leave Fiesole (1409-18) and some time after their return A. began to paint; nothing is known about his early training but he shows the influence of such international Gothic painters as *Monaco. He executed (c.1428—33) an altarpiece (extensively altered by di *Credi, ˝ 1501) and 3 frescoes (sala capitolarc of the convent) for his own convent and an Annunciation for the church of S. Domenico, Cortona; these foreshadow the simplicity of his mature work. In 1433 he was commissioned to paint the 'Linaiuoli' or Linen-workers' triptych, particularly famous for the 12 angels playing on musical instruments which decorate the frame surrounding the central figures of the Virgin and Child. Two triptychs, painted after this tor the churches of S. Domenico, Cortona and Perugia in the Gothic style, show that A. was attempting to break with the conventions of this form of altarpiece. In 1436 Cosimo de' Medici commissioned A. to paint 3 altarpieces including the high altar for the Dominican convent of S. Marco, Florence — Virgin and Child Unthroned with SS Cosmas and Damian (1438—40). In these and the slightly earlier Coronation of the Virgin for Fiesole the figures of saints and angels recede towards the central figure, marking a step in the development of the sacra conversazione altarpiece. A. also uses single panels instead of the triptych and completely abandons the Gothic gold background; in the S. Marco altarpiece he introduces landscape background. The predella scenes for this altarpiece from the lives of SS Cosinas and Damian illustrate A.'s excellence as a colourist and are his most lively narrative paintings. A. began, about this time, to supervise the painting of 50 frescoes of scenes from the life of Christ for the cells of the convent of S. Marco; he himself probably painted not more than 10. Their setting and purpose, which was not decorative but to act as an aid to meditation, were ideally suited to the direct and simple piety characteristic of A.'s painting. Those by him are the most straightforward and hence most effectively fulfil their purpose. In 1447 he was in Orvieto where he painted The Last Judgement, finished by Signorelh, and in Rome executing decorative work in the Vatican for Pope Nicholas V. Only his frescoes in the chapel of Nicholas V (1447/8) survive. In keeping with their setting these are richer and more complex than any of A.'s previous work. A. died in Rome. Much of A.'s work refers back to Giotto and he took no part in the artistic experiments and secular interests of his contemporaries, although he utilized new visual techniques such as perspective if they served the devotional purpose of his painting. *Gozzoli was his pupil.
(active 1447-1456) Early Renaissance Italian painter (Ferrara)
(active 1342-1389) Medieval Italian sculptor (Siena)
(active 1640-1650) Baroque Italian painter (Rome)
Angrand Charles
(1854-1926) French painter trained at the Académie de Peinture et de Dessin in Rouen, where he won prizes. Although he failed to gain entry to the Ecole des Beaux-Arts in Paris, Angrand began to win a controversial local reputation for canvases in a loosely Impressionist manner. In 1882 he secured a post as a schoolteacher at the Collège Chaptal in Paris. With this security he was able to make contacts in progressive artistic circles, and in 1884 he became a founder-member of the Salon des Indépendants. His paintings of this period depict rural interiors and kitchen gardens, combining the broken brushwork of Monet and Camille Pissarro with the tonal structure of Bastien-Lepage (e.g. In the Garden, 1884; priv. col.).
ANGUIER, François
(1604-1669) Baroque French sculptor
(1613-1686) Baroque French sculptor
(1538-1565) Mannerism Italian painter (Cremona)
(1530-1625) Mannerism Italian painter, perhaps the best-known female artist of the 16th c, influenced, as were many of her contemporaries, by *Titian. She mainly produced portraits and self-portraits. Her pursuit of a professional career did not conflict with contemporary notions of womanhood, largely because of her noble birth, and she was hailed as a prodigal exception. A. trained for 3 years under the man who appears in her Bcrnadino Catnpi Painthig Sojomsba Anguissola (late 1550s), in which she portrays herself as his subject. From 1559—80 she was court painter to the Queen of Spain.
(1889 - 1974) Russian painter, draughtsman and stage designer. He studied at the University of St Petersburg (later Petrograd) in 1908 and in the private studio of Savely Zeidenberg (1862–1924). In 1909–10 he attended the studio of Yan Tsyonglinsky (1850–1914) in St Petersburg, where he became acquainted with the avant-garde artists Yelena Guro (1877–1913), Mikhail Matyushin and Matvey Vol’demar (1878–1914). In 1911–12 he worked in the studios of Maurice Denis and Félix Vallotton in Paris, then in Switzerland (1913) before returning to St Petersburg. As a painter he was a modernist, and his work developed rapidly towards abstraction, although he did not adhere to any particular branch of it. His works of the time use various devices of stylization and decorativeness, and some of them echo the free associations of Marc Chagall, but fundamentally they remain geometrically based compositions. In 1919–20 he made a series of abstract sculptural assemblages and a great number of abstract collages. 
(1936— ) British abstract sculptor. At first influenced by *Caro, A. produces characteristic works of thin, colourfully painted, sheet steel. 
(1910—1988) Italian painter and highly successful society portraitist, notably of British royalty.
(1861-1932) French painter. He came to Paris in 1882 and studied art at the Ateliers of Bonnat and Cormon, where he was a contemporary and friend of Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec, Emile Bernard and Vincent van Gogh. His early work shows the influence of Impressionism and of Edgar Degas. In 1887 Anquetin and Bernard devised an innovative method of painting using strong black contour lines and flat areas of colour; Anquetin aroused much comment when he showed his new paintings, including the striking Avenue de Clichy: Five O’Clock in the Evening (1887; Hartford, CT, Wadsworth Atheneum) at the exhibition of Les XX in Brussels and at the Salon des IndÚpendants in Paris in 1888. The new style, dubbed Cloisonnisme by the critic Edouard Dujardin (1861–1949), resulted from a study of stained glass, Japanese prints and other so-called ‘primitive’ sources; it was close to the Synthetist experiments of Paul Gauguin and was adopted briefly by van Gogh during his Arles period. Anquetin’s works were shown alongside Gauguin’s and Bernard’s at the CafÚ Volpini exhibition in 1889, where they attracted considerable attention among younger artists.
ANSELMO Giovanni
(1934— ) Italian artist who works with stone, metal, wood and whose concerns are energy, gravity, space, time and infinity, e.g. Verso Infinite (1969). One of the original members of the *Arte Povera group whose proponent Germano Celant said of A.'s work that it 'exalts precariousness'. From 1969 he began using words which more explicitly connected images and ideas as in *Conceptual art. In the 1980s A. created site-specific installations.
ANSALDO, G. Andrea
(1584-1638) Baroque Italian painter (Genoa)
ANSELMI, Michelangelo
(1492-1556) High Renaissance Italian painter (Parma)
ANTELAMI, Benedetto
(active 1170-1230) Medieval Italian sculptor (Parma)
ANTELAMI Benedetto
(12th c). Northern Italian Romanesque sculptor, executed a relief of the Deposition (1178) and other work in Parma cathedral.
(1579/80-1620) Baroque Dutch painter
(1499-1555) Northern Renaissance Dutch graphic artist (Amsterdam)
(1460-1528) Early Renaissance Italian sculptor (Mantua)
ANTIGNA, Alexandre
(1817-1878) Romanticism French painter (Paris)
(1635-1675) Baroque Spanish painter (Madrid)
ANTOLINI Giovanni Antonio
(1756-1841) Italian painter. 
ANTONIO da Sangallo the Elder 
(1460-1534) Architect, woodworker, sculptor and engineer, brother of Giuliano da Sangallo. The earlier part of his career was overshadowed by that of his brother, with whom he ran a workshop in Florence for nearly 40 years until the latter’s death. Their first known work of collaboration is the Crucifix (1481) for the high altar of SS Annunziata, Florence. This was followed by a model (1482) for the church and monastery of the Badia, Florence, the seating (1487–8) in the refectory of S Pietro, Perugia, and a model (1491) for S Maria Maddalena dei Pazzi, Florence. Antonio was also active as a military engineer, occasionally representing his brother on the construction sites of fortifications. The first independent work attributed to him (c. 1490) is the Crucifix for the church of S Gallo (destr.), which is now kept in SS Annunziata, Florence. 
ANTONIO da Sangallo the Younger
(1483–1546) Italian architect.
ANTONELLO da Messina
(1430-1479) Early Renaissance Sicilian painter. In Naples he saw work by Netherlandish artists and may have studied under Colantonio, whose style was based on that of J. van Eyck. He learnt Van Eyck's method of oil painting and achieved a delicate synthesis between the Northern and Italian styles. Working in Venice (1475) he passed his knowledge on to G. *Bellini, altering his manner of painting and through him exercising great influence on the development of the Venetian school. His paintings include St Sebastian, Crucifixion, Portrait of a Young Man, St Jerome in his Study and Condottiere.
(1430-1508/12) Early Renaissance Italian painter (Rome)
(active first half 15th cent.) Early Renaissance Italian painter (Florence)
(active 1450-1500) Early Renaissance Italian painter (Venice)
(active c. 1527) High Renaissance Italian graphic artist (Bologna)
(active 1369-1419) Medieval Italian painter (Venice)
ANTROPOV, Aleksey Petrovich
(1716-1795) Rococo Russian painter
(fl. mid-4th ˝. Ô˝). Greek painter who studied near Corinth under *Pamphilos. He became court painter to Philip and Alexander the Great, whose portrait he alone was permitted to paint. His reputation rests simply on literary references since none of his paintings nor his treatise on painting survive. 
(5th ˝. Ô˝). Greek painter famous for panel as opposed to wall paintings and called 'skiagraphos' ('the shadow painter') because he introduced shading into his work to achieve more naturalistic effects. He also experimented with foreshortening.
(1921- ) Dutch painter, leader in the Dutch Reflex group which, in 1948, became the international *Cobra group. His hall-marks are violent colours and an impassioned style stemming from Van Gogh and the Expressionists.
(1414-1465) Early Renaissance Italian painter (Florence)
(1754-1817) Neoclassicism Italian painter and designer. He had been intended to follow his father’s career in medicine but instead entered the private academy of the painter Carlo Maria Giudici (1723–1804). He received instruction in drawing, copying mainly from sculpture and prints. He studied Raphael through the engravings of Marcantonio Raimondi, as well as the work of Giulio, Anton Raphael Mengs and, again from prints, the compositions in Trajan’s Column. He then joined the class of the fresco painter Antonio de’ Giorgi (1720–93), which was held at the Ambrosiana picture gallery in Milan, where he was able to study Raphael’s art directly from the cartoon of the School of Athens and the work of Leonardo’s followers, particularly Bernardino Luini. He also frequented the studio of Martin Knoller, where he deepened his knowledge of painting in oils; and he studied anatomy at the Ospedale Maggiore in Milan with the sculptor Gaetano Monti (1750–1847). His interest in aesthetic issues was stimulated by the classical poet Giuseppe Parini, whom he drew in two fine pencil portraits (Milan, Brera; Milan, Mus. Poldi Pezzoli). In 1776 he entered the Accademia di Belle Arti di Brera to follow the painting courses of Giuliano Traballesi, from whom he received a mastery of the fresco technique and the encouragement to make copies after Domenichino and Correggio.
(1929- ) U.S. artist. Having first worked in *performance, film and sculpture, since 1974 she has emerged as one of the most serious and interesting U.S. feminist *Postmodern painters. Her cartoon-like drawings in separate panels, using ink and rhoplex on parchment-like stiff vellum, were an offshoot of *Conceptual art — she uses words and pictures which appear to be, yet defy, narrative. In these, as in her large multi-panel paintings, sometimes freestanding two-sided canvases, as well as on the wall, e.g. the series 'Marginalia' (1991). A. deals with issues of power/powerlessness, alienation, 'the failure of individuals to connect', public vs. private feelings, disaffection, rejection, humiliation and what amounts to the near-breakdown of communication in our society. Her technique, using the palette knife to build up the dominant images in muted browns, reds and yellows, is contrasted to the smaller, often repetitive, scenes drawn like comic strips around the main image.
APT, Ulrich the Elder
(c. 1460-1522) Northern Renaissance German painter from Augsburg. His works include the Matthiius Altarpiece and the dramatic and experimental Lamentation over the Dead (Christ, both in Munich. The Portrait of a Young Man, discovered in the 19th c, was remarkably like A.'s work but showed the initials 'L.S.' on a piece of armour. A.'s best works were reattributed to 'L.S.' until it was recently shown that the initials were simply those of the armourer.  
AQUILLON Franciscus
(1567-1617) Flemish architects.
ARALDI, Alessandro
(1460-c. 1530) High Renaissance Italian painter (Parma)
(1477/78-1530) High Renaissance Italian painter (Florence)
(1887-1964) Sculptor born in Kiev. He went to Paris in 1908 and soon made contact with the Cubists; his work was among the most important in the development of the new styles in 20th-c. sculpture. From essentially Cubist premises he evolved new approaches and techniques introducing (1912), for example, collage in sculpture, i.e. using wood, metal and glass, etc., on the same work. His Boxers (1913) is an important landmark in the assimilation by modern sculptors of the vitalist nature of primitive art.
(1530-1593) Mannerism Milanese painter sometimes considered an ancestor of the Surrealists by virtue of his fantasy portrait heads; these are made up of fruit, vegetables, flowers, fragments of landscape, birds, animals, human bodies, tools, weapons, etc. Worked (in conventional style) at Milan cathedral and as painter to the Hapsburg court at Prague (1562—87).
(1614-1676) Baroque Spanish painter (Madrid)
(1585-1631) Baroque Dutch landscape painter. His landscapes are heavily populated with figure groups. 
ARFE, goldsmith family
(16th cent.) High Renaissance Spanish goldsmith
ARGUNOV, Ivan Petrovich
(1729-1802) Rococo Russian painter
ARNOLD of Nijmegen (see AERT VAN ORT)
(active 1490-1536) Northern Renaissance Flemish glass painter
ARDIZZONE Edward Jeffrey Irving
(1900-1979). British artist in etching, lithography, pen drawing and watercolour. He was an official war artist (1940-5). He ill. more than 130 books, including children's books, e.g. Tim All Alone (1956), and an edition of Villon's poems and publ. Diary of A War Artist (1974). 
ARIKHA Avigdor
(1929— ) Israeli painter, print maker and writer on art. Born in Bukovina, he has lived and worked in Paris since 1954. A. is one of the most original and accomplished living figurative artists who 1st became known as an abstract painter. He stopped painting in 1965 and drew from life until 1973. A. has curated exhibitions and written on Poussin, Ingres, etc. 
(1862 - 1930) Russian painter. He trained at the Moscow School of Painting, Sculpture and Architecture under Vasily Perov, Aleksey Savrasov, Vladimir Makovsky and Vasily Polenov and joined the WANDERERS (Peredvizhniki) in 1889 and the Union of Russian Artists in 1903. While indebted to the realist painting of Perov, Arkhipov also gave particular attention to effects of light, rhythm and texture, even in his most didactic canvases, such as Washerwomen (late 1890s; two versions Moscow, Tret’yakov Gal. and St Petersburg, Rus. Mus.). Arkhipov found a rich and diverse source of inspiration in the Russian countryside and the peasantry; he painted peasants at work, the melting of the snow, the local church and priest, the villages of the far north and the White Sea. Works such as The Lay Brother (1891) and Northern Village (1903; both Moscow, Tret’yakov Gal.) are evidence of Arkhipov’s important position in the history of late 19th-century Russian landscape painting. His concentration on plein-air painting was shared to a considerable extent by other representatives of the Union of Russian Artists such as Baksheyev, Leonard Turzhansky (1875–1945) and Sergey Vinogradov (1869–1938). 
(1928 - 2005) Franco-American *assemblage artist, a member of the *Nouveau realisme group, influenced by *Klem. He worked on series like poubelles (trash cans, displaying their contents) and accumulations (e.g. a cube 1m. cubed in volume full of toothbrushes), which are ironic statements about the detritus of the consumer society. *decollage, *Rotella, *Villegle, *Hains and *Vostell.
(1916- ) British sculptor. In 1956 he won a competition for a war memorial at Krefeld. He was shown in the 1963 Darmstadt exhibition 'Evidences of Anxiety in Modern Art'. A. works almost entirely in plaster cast into bronze, concentrating on achieving an effect of movement and vitality in his figures, notable in the Walking Group (1951). His works include the Figure Lying on its Side, No. 5 (1959) and Pandarus 8 (1963). 
ARMLEDER John Michael
(1948— ) Swiss artist known for combining pictures (of simple and random designs with references to formal abstraction) and objects (furniture, anonymous consumer articles and musical instruments) which interact in installations, e.g. 'Furniture Sculptures' of the 1980s.
(1893—1973) British painter, a member (1933) of the *Unit One group. A.'s style, partly influenced by Surrealism, includes murals and theatre designs.
(1889 - 1960) Pin -Up Art. Born in Seattle in 1899, Armstrong grew up in the rugged environment of the Pacific Northwest. He moved to Chicago in 1908 and later enrolled at the Art Institute, where he studied for three years under the master draftsman John Vanderpoel. He then went on to New York, where he became a student of Robert Henri. Athletic as well as artistic, Armstrong both boxed and sketched at the New York Athletic Club.
ARNOLFO di Cambio
(1232—1302) Italian sculptor and architect. Assistant to N. Pisano both on the shrine of S. Dominic in Bologna and the pulpit at Siena. His statue of Charles of Anjou (before 1277) is the 1st modern portrait statue by a known artist and the design of his wall tomb of Cardinal de Braye (the cardinal lies on a bier beneath the Madonna and Child in glory) was a model for over a c. A. was an architect of the cathedral of S. Maria del Fiore and the church of S. Croce, both Florence, and also carved the sculptural decoration on the cathedral facade.
ARP Jean or Hans
(1888-1966) Alsatian sculptor, graphic artist, painter and writer. He exhibited with Der *Blaue Reiter artists and contributed to Der Sturm, and his interest in poetry inspired a great deal of his graphic work. In 1915 he moved to Zurich and, together with his wife, Sophie Taeuber, started to make *collages according to the 'law of chance'. In 1916/17 he made his 1st abstract sculptures; he participated in the Dada movement and the 1st Surrealist exhibition in 1925. In addition to sculptures, reliefs (one at the Unesco building in Paris), collages and drawings, A. also designed tapestries and wrote much, both poetry and prose in French and German. His works are usually or near abstract but nevertheless identify themselves quite clearly with natural forms.
(1245-1310) Medieval Italian sculptor
ARPINO Giuseppe Cesari (called 'Chevalier d'Arpio')
(1568-1640) One of the last and most conservative of Italian Mannerist painters. He designed the mosaics for the dome of St Peter's, Rome, and painted the frescoes in S. Martino, Naples (1589-91), and a series of large histories in the Conservatori Palace, Rome (1591—1636). Caravaggio was his pupil.
ARROYO Eduardo
(1937- ). Spanish artist, based in France and Italy until Franco's death in 1975, whose politically and culturally radical targets were not only political conservatism but also new art orthodoxies. He attacked *Duchamp (Live and Lei Die: The Tragic End of Marcel Duchamp, 1965) and the *Nouveau realisme group, *Miro and *Dali. Co-founder of the Salon de la Jeune Peinture in 1963, A.'s aim was to create 'art that engages the spirit of art more than its vocabulary', a statement which characterizes all his activities. In solidarity with Cuban intellectuals, he and other members of Jeune Peinture painted a mural in homage to the Cuban Revolution and organized a 'Salle Rouge pour le Vietnam'. In 1968 they started the Atelier Populaire at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts, Paris, producing more than 300,000 posters. A.'s passionate commitment to radicalism informs his idiosyncratic, often autobiographical, work, which also has great formal qualities recognized widely after the 1980s.
(1923- ) U.S. painter and sculptor. While at Cornell University, Ithaca, N.Y., where he read chemistry and biology, he took painting and drawing classes. He then studied with *Ozenfant 1949-50 before temporarily turning away from painting. In N.Y. he ran a woodwork studio where he started making furniture. In the 1960s he became involved with art full time and continued to explore the theme of furniture through 3-dimensional constructions of painted or polychrome wood. A. also paints large, usually monochrome depictions of interiors, buildings and objects on celofex. 
ARTHOIS, Jacques d'
(1613-1686) Baroque Flemish painter (Brussels)
ASAM, Cosmas Damian
(1686-1739) Baroque German painter Asam Cosmas and his brother Egid, sons of the Bavarian painter Hans Georg (1649—1711), were church decorators and designers in whose work S. German Baroque achieved its zenith. Cosmas Damian (1686—1739) was a painter and architect of the monastic church of Weltenburg (1717—21). In his painting illusionism is carried to its furthest extremes, e.g. his frescoes in the church of Maria Viktoria, Ingolstadt (1736), and the Alteglofsheim Palace in Brevnov (1730). His use of light colours tends to the style of Rococo. Like his brother he held high positions in S. German courts. Egid Qturin (1692—1750) was stucco-worker, sculptor and architect; his churches include the collegiate church at Rohr (1718—25) and St Johann Nepomuk (called the Asam) church, Munich (1733-c 1750), although Cosmas may have helped in the latter. All his sculpture of any importance is designed for churches and his best works are his altarpieces, e.g. the Assumption of the Virgin at Rohr and the St George at Weltenburg. The brothers worked in such harmony that it is usually difficult to distinguish their work. They were employed to redecorate Romanesque or Gothic churches (as at Freising cathedral, 1723/4, or St Emmeram's church, Regensburg) but their masterpiece is the S. Johann Nepomuk church, Munich, where painting, sculpture, stucco and architecture serve the illusive confusion of the real and imaginary worlds (*Baroque).
ASAM, Egid Quirin
(1692-1750) Baroque German sculptor, brother of ASAM, Cosmas Damian
ASCH, Pieter Jansz van
(1603-1678) Baroque Dutch painter (Delft)
ASHFORD, William
(1746-1824) Rococo Irish painter (Dublin)
(1475-1552) Mannerism Italian painter (Bologna)
(1610-1652) Baroque Dutch painter. After visiting Rome he began to paint Italianate landscapes in the manner of Claude Lorrain, being one of the 1 st in Holland to do so. His best-known, though not his most characteristic, work is The Angry Swan, an allegory of Dutch independence.
ASSERETO, Gioachino
(1600-1649) Baroque Italian painter (Genoa)
ASSTEYN, Bartholomeus
(1607-1667) Baroque Dutch painter (Dordrecht)
AST, Balthasar van der
(1594-1657) Baroque Dutch painter (Delft)
ASTOR, Diego de
(1587-1650) Mannerism Spanish graphic artist
(1452-1525) Early Renaissance Italian illuminator (Florence)
ATTIRET, Claude-François
(1728-1804) Rococo French sculptor (Paris)
(1658-1734) Baroque French painter (Paris)
AUDUBON, John James
(1785-1851) Romanticism American graphic artistand naturalist and artist who painted from life 435 watercolours of birds, often in action, which were reproduced in coloured aquatint by Robert Havell Jr. and publ. in London as The Birds of America (4 vols, 1827—38); only these prints survive. The text, written with the help of William MacGillivray, was publ. separately as Ornithological Biography (5 vols, 1831-9). A.'s paintings have considerable artistic merit although their scientific accuracy varies.
(1931- ) Born in Berlin, he moved permanently to Britain in 1939. A. studied at St Martin's School of Art, London, and at the Royal College of Art. He was taught and influenced by *Bomberg who encouraged him to look back, beyond Cubism, to Cezanne. His work is modern, but in the tradition of Gericault, Delacroix, Ingres, Courbet and Daumier; he is one of the most accomplished figurative artists of his generation. His subjects are portraits of friends, and landscapes.
AUGUSTIN, Jean-Baptiste-Jacques
(1759-1832) Rococo French miniaturist who revived the art in France; his paintings have strong, pure colours, certainty of execution and high finish.
AVANZI, Jacopo
(active 1363-1384) Medieva lItalian painter (Padua)
AVED, Jacques-André-Joseph
(1702-1766) Baroque French portrait painter who studied in Amsterdam and unlike his French contemporaries usually painted his subjects in their normal dress and surroundings. He urged his friend *Ghardin to take up portraiture and their work has sometimes been confused. 
AVELINE, Antoine
(1691-1743) Baroque French graphic artist (Paris)
AVELINE, Pierre-Alexandre
(1702-1760) Baroque French graphic artist (Paris)
AVELLI, Francesco Xanto
(1487-1542) High Renaissance Italian painter
(1612-1679) Baroque Dutch painter (Kampen)
AVERCAMP, Hendrick
(1585-1634) Baroque Dutch landscape painter who specialized in winter landscapes with numerous tiny figures. 
AVERY Milton Clark
(1893-1965) U.S. figurative artist who continued and developed Matisse's abstracting tendencies and flat colour masses. Starkness of presentation and force and clarity of images in works like Mother and Child (1944), Swimmers and Snnbalhers (1945), organized in areas of pure colour, anticipate the Abstract Expressionists: he was greatly admired by *Cottlieb, *Hofmann and *Rothko.
(1946- ) U.S. sculptor. She studied under R. *Morris and developed an interest in architecture and ancient sites (e.g. Maze, 1972) transposed to contemporary situations, e.g. Vie True and False Project Unfitted 'The World is So Full of a Number of Filings' and Project Entitled 'The Beginnings of a Complex' (both 1977). A. later studied machine forms and mechanical forces and created large-scale installations, e.g. The Savage Sparkler (1981)and Tower of Babel (1986).
AYRTON Michael (ne Gould)
(1921-75) British figurative sculptor, painter, graphic artist, writer and critic. A.'s chief preoccupations were with the Greek myths of Daedalus, the Minotaur and the Delphic oracle, and the composer Berlioz. A.'s numerous books include: Testament of Daedalus (1962), The Rudiments of Paradise (1971) and The Minos Consequence (1974).


The Metropolitan Museum of Art Has Great Influence on Art's History
By Mike Selvon

When making plans to visit New York City, whether for a family vacation or for a business trip, it is difficult not to run across plenty of information and promotions about the Metropolitan Museum of Art. This world-class museum is one of the largest anywhere, as well as being one of the best known, and it is where some of the most wonderful collections of fine art anywhere in the world are housed.

The collections that are housed in this New York museum are comprised of more than two million works of amazing art. This stunning supply of art treasures spans more than 5,000 years of world history and culture that comes from every corner the globe. The "Met," as it is popularly called, especially by locals, was founded in 1870 and it is located along the eastern edge of New York City's Central Park, situated on Fifth Avenue. Each year it receives millions of visitors.

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