ALBA, Macrino d'
(1460 -1528) Early Renaissance Italian painter (Alba)
(1578-1660) Baroque Italian painter working at Bologna and Rome and popular with his contemporaries for graceful, if somewhat sentimental, religious and mythological paintings. He studied first under the Flemish painter *Calvaert and then at the Carracci Academy.
(1899 - 1994) Textile designer, draughtsman and printmaker, wife of Josef Albers. She studied art under Martin Brandenburg (b 1870) in Berlin from 1916 to 1919, at the Kunstgewerbeschule in Hamburg (1919–20) and at the Bauhaus in Weimar (1922–25) and Dessau (1925–29). In 1925 she married Josef Albers, with whom she settled in the USA in 1933 after the closure of the Bauhaus, and from 1933 to 1949 she taught at Black Mountain College in North Carolina; she became a US citizen in 1937. Her Bauhaus training led her as early as the 1920s to produce rectilinear abstract designs based on colour relationships, such as Design for Rug for Child’s Room (gouache on paper, 1928; New York, MOMA), but it was during her period at Black Mountain College that she began producing her most original work, including fabrics made of unusual materials such as a mixture of jute and cellophane (1945–50; New York, MOMA) or of mixed warp and heavy linen weft with jute, cotton and aluminium (1949; New York, MOMA). She began producing prints in 1963, using lithography, screenprinting, etching and aquatint and inkless intaglio.
(1888-1976) German painter and designer. After an academic training in Berlin, Essen and Munich, he studied at the *Bauhaus and was later invited by Gropius to teach there. His 1st work included pictures in glass, furniture and abstracts. In 1933 he went to the U.S.A. and developed a new free abstract style (Etude in Red-Violet, 1935), later became interested in the manipulation of colour (his series of Variantes from 1947), and developed as the doyen of U.S. geometric abstractionists (Homage to the Square: in secret, 1962). Albers was always an experimental artist, his work being closely related to his practice as a teacher. In 1955he became chairman of the Design Department at Yale Univ.
(died before1397) Medieval Italian painter (Venice)
ALBERTI, Leon Battista
(1404-1472) Early Renaissance Italian humanist and architect born in Genoa. In Florence (c. 1428) he formed friendships with *Donatello, *Ghiberti, *Robbia and *Masaccio to whom he dedicated his important treatise on painting, Delia Pittura (1436) containing the first description of *perspective in depiction. As a great humanist, he stressed the rational and scientific nature of the arts, departing from religious symbolism or function, and urging a return to classical modes.
(1474-1515) Early Renaissance Florentine painter. He was close friend of, and collaborator with, Fra *Bartolommeo, whom he met in the atelier of *Rosselli. Their partnership broke up about 1512, when A. became an innkeeper. With a technique sometimes indistinguishable from Bartolommeo's A.'s best independent "work is his Visitation (1503).
Le Loraine (1897-1983) U.S. painter born in Chicago. Studied in Chicago and at National Academy of Design, N.Y. He evolved a personal, naturalistic style outside the mainstream of modern art. Worked slowly and meticulously, drawing on experience of seamy life in Chicago where he lived.
(1721-1757) Baroque Italian painter (Venice)
(late 5th ñ. BC). Athenian sculptor, a pupil of Phidias. The group Procne and Itys is attributed to him, and he may have collaborated in the sculptures for the Parthenon.
ALCIBAR, José de
(1725/30-1803) Mexican Baroque painter
(1502- 555) German engraver and painter who worked on a small scale, greatly influenced by *Durer.
(1522-1605) Mannerism Italian graphic artist (Bologna)
(1927- ) Belgian painter; he studied painting in Brussels and engraving with *Hayter in Paris. One of the founders of the international *Cobra group (1948).
ALEN William Van
(1888-1954) American architect. While studying at the Pratt Institute in Brooklyn, he was apprenticed to Clarence True, a speculative builder in New York, after which he joined the local firm of Copeland & Dole and later Clinton & Russell. Van Alen also studied under Donn Barber (1871–1925) at the Beaux-Arts Institute in New York and in 1908 won a fellowship to the Ecole des Beaux-Arts in Paris, where he studied under Victor A. F. Laloux. From 1911 to 1925 he was in partnership with H. Craig Severance (1879–1941) in Manhattan.
ALEIJADINHO (see LISBOA, Antonio Francisco)
(1738-1814) Rococo Portuguese sculptor (Brazil)
ALEXEEV, Fedor Yakovlevich
(1753-1824) Russian painter who achieved notable success in town landscaping. In 1766-1773 he studied landscape painting in the Academy of Arts in St. Petersburg. Then he spent three years in Venice studying scene-painting. After his return to Russia he was compelled to work as a decorator in the Theater School, although his ambition was to paint landscapes. Only after he became popular after copying the works of the famous Italian and French landscapists Canaletto, Bellotto, Robert and Vernet, was he allowed to gratify his desires. Among his best known works in the 1790s were View of the Castle of St. Peter and Paul and Palace Sea-front (1793), View of the Palace Sea-front From the Castle of St. Peter and Paul(1791). For these pictures he was nominated an academician. The following years he traveled in the South of Russia, where he painted several town landscapes of the towns he visited. In 1800 Emperor Paul I ordered him to paint a series of views of Moscow. He and his pupils spent more than a year in Moscow and they produced 58 watercoulors, some of them are Palace in Tsaritsyno in the Vicinity of Moscow (1800-1802), The Monastery of Trinity and St. Sergius (1800-1802), View of Moscow Near the Iversky Gate of the Kremlin (1800-1802), The Foundling Hospital in Moscow (1800-1802). In the 1800s he worked mostly in St.Petersburg, where he was very popular and had a lot of customers.
ALENZA Y NIETO, Leonardo
(1807-1845) Neoclassicism Spanish painter and illustrator. He studied at the Real Academia de S Fernando, Madrid, under Juan Antonio Ribera y Fernández and José de Madrazo y Agudo. He worked independently of court circles and achieved some fame but nevertheless died in such poverty that his burial was paid for by friends. He is often described as the last of the followers of Goya, in whose Caprichos and drawings he found inspiration for the genre scenes for which he became best known. Of these scenes of everyday life and customs the more interesting include The Beating (Madrid, Casón Buen Retiro) and Galician with Puppets (c. 1835; Madrid, Casón Buen Retiro). Alenza y Nieto’s numerous drawings include the illustrations for Alain-René Lesage’s Gil Blas (Madrid, 1840), for an edition of the poems of Francisco de Quevedo published by Castello and for the reviews Semanario pintoresco and El Reflejo. The painting Triumph of David (1842; Madrid, Real Acad. S Fernando, Mus.) led to his election as an Académico de mérito at the Real Academia de S Fernando in 1842, and he produced such portraits as that of Alejandro de la Pena (Madrid, Real Acad. S Fernando, Mus.) and a Self-portrait (Madrid, Casón Buen Retiro). His two canvases entitled Satire on Romantic Suicide (Madrid, Mus. Romántico) are perhaps the most characteristic of his works.
(1598-1654) Baroque Bolognese sculptor. After studying at the Carracci Academy he settled r. 1625 in Rome, where his friends included *Domenichino, N. *Poussm and *Sacchi. A. excelled as a portraitist, particularly in the depth of his character analysis, e.g his Francesco Bracciolini.Although A.'s approach was classical and although he was Bernini's chief rival, his statue of Innocent X was influenced by the bitter's Urban VIII and above all his tomb for Leo XI (1645/50) is the first of many to be modelled on Bernini's for Urban. From 1646 to 1653 A. was working on his relief of The Meeting of Attila and Leo I. With its modulation from the free-standing figures of the foreground to the shallow relief of the background, this was to be influential on later relief technique.
ALIENSE, Il (see VASSILACCHI, Antonio)
(1556-1629) Mannerism Italian painter (Venice)
(1400/10-1460) Northern Renaissance Flemish painter (Valencia)
(1785—1851) Danish artist settled in Britain. He was a prolific painter and water-colourist of hunting, coaching and shooting scenes and produced a famous series of aquatint prints. The quality of his work declined in the 1820s.
ALLADIO, Gian Giacomo de (see ALBA, Macrino d')
(c. 1460-c. 1528) Early Renaissance Italian painter (Alba)
ALLAN Sir William
(7782—1850) Scottish history painter admired by Walter Scott. Allan and *Wilkie were largely responsible for establishing Scottish historical genre painting.
(1710-1795) Rococo French sculptor (Paris)
(1644-1736) Baroque French painter (Paris)
ALLEGRI, Antonio (see CORREGGIO)
(c. 1490-1534) High Renaissance Italian painter (Parma)
(1535-1607) Mannerism Florentine painter. Used the name Bronzino after the death of his uncle, II *Bronzino. Studied under Bronzino and in Rome under Michelangelo. Although his drawing was rigid and his colouring cold he was popular as a painter of decorative frescoes into which he inserted portraits of prominent contemporaries. Cristofano (1577—1621), Mannerist painter, son of Alessandro. His painting united the rich colouring of the Venetian with the careful drawing of the Florentine school. His best-known painting is Judith with the Head of Holojemes. Judith is a portrait of his mistress Mazzafirra, while Holofernes is supposed to be a self-portrait.
(1577-1621) Baroque Italian painter (Florence)
(1779-1843) Romanticism American painter and writer. In Europe (1801-10, 1811-18), he studied under B. West in London and visited Pans and Kome, becoming a close friend of S. T. Coleridge, W. Irving and B. Thorwaldsen. As the 1st U.S. artist to paint romantic landscapes he was a precursor of the *Hudson River school; he also painted portraits, e.g. that of Coleridge, and large dramatic biblical and classical subjects. His Lectures on Art were publ. in 1850.
(1836-1912) Netherlands academic painter who settled in London (1870). He was very popular for his idealized, but accurately detailed and brilliantly coloured, scenes of Greek and Roman life.
ALLYNCBROOD, Louis (see ALINCBROT, Louis)
(1400/10-1460) Northern Renaissance Flemish painter (Valencia)
ALMONACID, Sebastián de
(c. 1460-1526) Early Renaissance Spanish sculptor
ALSLOOT, Denis van
(1570-1628) Baroque Flemish painter who specialized in pageant and procession scenes.
(c. 1480-1538) Northern Renaissance German painter and city architect and councillor of Regensburg, Bavaria. His St George is one of the first true landscape paintings in Europe. In it a mass of forest foliage soars above the tiny figures of St George and the dragon. Even in his early works, which show influences of L. Cranach and Durer, landscape predominates, and a tour of the Danube and the Austrian Alps (c 1511) confirmed his inclinations. An immediate result was the series of canvases, drawings and etchings of Danube landscapes (*Danube school). Other major works are Alexander's Victory, also called the Battle of Arbela (1529), and the Si Vlorian Altar. This was eight panels depicting the life of St Plorian, painted for St Florian's church, near Linz, Austria. Seven of the panels are now in colls elsewhere; the Germanisches N.-Mus., Nuremberg; the Uffizi; and a private coll.
(c. 1547-1617) Northern Renaissance German goldsmith (Augsburg)
ALTICHIERO da Zevio
(c. 1330-c. 1390)Medieval Italian painter (Verona) (fl. 1369-84). Italian painter from Verona. His figures are reminiscent of Giotto's style but show a greater awareness of one another suggestive of later painters. There are frescoes by him in Verona and Padua including a great Crucifixion in the church of Sant'Antonio, Padua.
(1889 – 1970) Russian Avant-garde artist, Cubist painter, stage designer and book illustrator.
(1657-1745) Baroque Austrian painter
ALVARO DI PIETRO (see PIREZ D'ÉVORA, Alvaro)
(active 1411-1434) Early Renaissance Portuguese painter (Italy)
AMADEO, Giovanni Antonio (see OMODEO, Giovanni Antonio)
(1447-1522) Early Renaissance Italian sculptor (1447-1522). Italian sculptor and architect. He was principally active in Bergamo, Cremona, Milan and Pavia. His professional success, in terms of the architectural and sculptural commissions and official appointments that he received, was far greater than that of any of his contemporaries in Lombardy in the late 15th century, including Bramante. Amadeo’s influence in both fields, for example in his use of all’antica ornament of local origin, was considerable.
(1858-1936). French painter, pastellist and printmaker. He studied from 1880 under the academic painter Henri Lehmann at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts in Paris; there he befriended Georges Seurat with whom he shared a studio for several years. He also studied under Pierre Puvis de Chavannes, working as his assistant on the Sacred Grove (1884; Lyon, Mus. B.-A.). In 1886 he obtained a travel scholarship to Rome and on his return befriended Symbolist poets such as Stephane Mallarme, Paul Verlaine and Philippe-Auguste Villiers de l’Isle Adam. While the poets sought to subvert language in order to express new sensations, Aman-Jean relied on pictorial and iconographic traditions. He specialized in pictures of languid young women turned in profile to the left or gazing into space, as in Girl with Peacock (1895; Paris, Mus. A. Dec.), using broken brushstrokes and colour contrasts that by then had largely shed their avant-garde connotations. Typical works such as the colour lithograph Beneath the Flowers (1897; Paris, Bib. N.) and the portrait of Mlle Thadie C. Jacquet (1892; Paris. Mus. d’Orsay) led the critic Camille Mauclair to identify him as an heir to the English Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood.
(1952- ) Japanese artist known for his illustrations for Vampire Hunter D and for his character designs, image illustrations and title logo designs for the Final Fantasy video game series developed by Square Enix (formerly Square).
(1806-1885) French painter and writer. A student of Ingres, he first exhibited at the Salon in 1830 with a portrait of a child. He continued exhibiting portraits until 1868. Such entries as M. Geoffroy as Don Juan (1852; untraced), Rachel, or Tragedy (1855; Paris, Mus. Comédie-Fr.) and Emma Fleury (1861; untraced) from the Comédie-Française indicate an extended pattern of commissions from that institution. His travels in Greece and Italy encouraged the Néo-Grec style that his work exemplifies. Such words as refinement, delicacy, restraint, elegance and charm pepper critiques of both his painting and his sedate, respectable life as an artist, cultural figure and writer in Paris. In contrast to Ingres’s success with mature sitters, Amaury-Duval’s portraits of young women are his most compelling. In them, clear outlines and cool colours evoke innocence and purity. Though the portraits of both artists were influenced by classical norms, Amaury-Duval’s have control and civility in contrast to the mystery and sensuousness of Ingres’s.
Greek potter and vase painter in the *black-figured style; his figures are lithe, vigorous and witty.
(1505-1562) Northern Renaissance German portrait painter whose work shows Venetian influence. Working in Augsburg he painted many famous people, including the Emperor Charles V (1532).
Swiss woodcut artist and painter who settled in Nuremberg (1561), where he became a prolific ill. He executed woodcut ills for S. Feyerabend's Bible (1564) and a set of 115 for a series on arts and trades.