Greek vase painter in the *red-figured style.
AMBROGIO DA FOSSANO (see BERGOGNONE, Ambrogio)
(1453-1523) High Renaissance Italian painter (Lombardy)
AMERLING, Friedrich von
(1803-1887) Romanticism Austrian painter (Vienna)
(1682-1752) Venetian Rococo painter who worked in various European countries and during his own lifetime was very popular.
(1511-1592) Mannerism Florentine sculptor and architect. In Florence he carved the Neptune fountain (1563-77) in the Piazza della Signoria and built the famous Bridge of the Trinity (1567-9), destroyed in an air raid (1944), but since rebuilt, and extensions (1560—77) to the Pitti Palace. There are also buildings by A. in Rome and Lucca.
(1823-1903) French Pre-Raphaelite Painter
ANDREA DA FIRENZE
(active 1343-1377) Medieval Italian painter (Florence)
ANDREA da Firenze Andrea di Bonaiuto
(1346-1379) Italian painter.
ANDREA DA FIRENZE (see NOFRI, Andrea)
(1388-1455) Early Renaissance Italian sculptor (Florence)
ANDREA DA MURANO
(1462-1502) Early Renaissance Italian painter (Venice)
ANDREA DEL CASTAGNO
(1423-1457) Early Renaissance Italian painter. He was the most influential 15th-century Florentine master, after Masaccio, of the realistic rendering of the figure and the representation of the human body as a three-dimensional solid by means of contours. By translating into the terms of painting the statues of the Florentine sculptors Nanni di Banco and Donatello, Castagno set Florentine painting on a course dominated by line (the Florentine tradition of disegno), the effect of relief and the sculptural depiction of the figure that became its distinctive trait throughout the Italian Renaissance, a trend that culminated in the art of Michelangelo.
ANDREA DEL SARTO
(1486-1530) High Renaissance Florentine painter with feeling for tone and colour characteristic of the Venetian rather than the Florentine school. Invited by Francis I to Paris (1518) he returned to Florence (1519) to his wife. His life and works were much studied and admired in the 19th ñ and Browning's poem Andrea del Sarto was a sensitive and acceptable picture of a gifted, irresolute and reflective man. A.'s frescoes Birth of the Virgin (1514) and Madonna del Sacco (1525), both in S. Annunziata church, Florence, are perfect examples of the High Renaissance. Other major works include Madonna delle Arpie (1517), classical in style, and the Holy Family was a favourite theme. Among his pupils were the Mannerists da *Pontormo and G. B. Rosso.
ANDREA DI BARTOLO
(1360/70-1428) Early Renaissance Italian painter (Siena)
ANDREA di Vanni d'Andrea
(1332-1414) Medieval Italian painter (Siena)
(1465-1553) High Renaissance Italian potter (Gubbio)
(1742-1819) Rococo Dutch painter (Amsterdam)
ANDROUET DU CERCEAU, Jacques the Elder
(1515-1584) Mannerism French graphic artist
(1583-1617) Baroque Spanish graphic artist
ANGELI, Filippo d' (see NAPOLETANO, Filippo)
(1589-1629) Baroque Italian painter (Rome)
(1712-1798) Baroque Italian painter (Venice)
(1400-1455) Early Renaissance Italian painter Angelico Fra(Giovanni da Fiesole). He celebrated for his frescoes in the convent of S. Marco, Florence. In 1407 he entered the Dominican convent of S. Domenico, Fiesole, near Florence, of which he was later prior (1449-52). Papal politics forced the community to leave Fiesole (1409-18) and some time after their return A. began to paint; nothing is known about his early training but he shows the influence of such international Gothic painters as *Monaco. He executed (c.1428—33) an altarpiece (extensively altered by di *Credi, ñ 1501) and 3 frescoes (sala capitolarc of the convent) for his own convent and an Annunciation for the church of S. Domenico, Cortona; these foreshadow the simplicity of his mature work. In 1433 he was commissioned to paint the 'Linaiuoli' or Linen-workers' triptych, particularly famous for the 12 angels playing on musical instruments which decorate the frame surrounding the central figures of the Virgin and Child. Two triptychs, painted after this tor the churches of S. Domenico, Cortona and Perugia in the Gothic style, show that A. was attempting to break with the conventions of this form of altarpiece. In 1436 Cosimo de' Medici commissioned A. to paint 3 altarpieces including the high altar for the Dominican convent of S. Marco, Florence — Virgin and Child Unthroned with SS Cosmas and Damian (1438—40). In these and the slightly earlier Coronation of the Virgin for Fiesole the figures of saints and angels recede towards the central figure, marking a step in the development of the sacra conversazione altarpiece. A. also uses single panels instead of the triptych and completely abandons the Gothic gold background; in the S. Marco altarpiece he introduces landscape background. The predella scenes for this altarpiece from the lives of SS Cosinas and Damian illustrate A.'s excellence as a colourist and are his most lively narrative paintings. A. began, about this time, to supervise the painting of 50 frescoes of scenes from the life of Christ for the cells of the convent of S. Marco; he himself probably painted not more than 10. Their setting and purpose, which was not decorative but to act as an aid to meditation, were ideally suited to the direct and simple piety characteristic of A.'s painting. Those by him are the most straightforward and hence most effectively fulfil their purpose. In 1447 he was in Orvieto where he painted The Last Judgement, finished by Signorelh, and in Rome executing decorative work in the Vatican for Pope Nicholas V. Only his frescoes in the chapel of Nicholas V (1447/8) survive. In keeping with their setting these are richer and more complex than any of A.'s previous work. A. died in Rome. Much of A.'s work refers back to Giotto and he took no part in the artistic experiments and secular interests of his contemporaries, although he utilized new visual techniques such as perspective if they served the devotional purpose of his painting. *Gozzoli was his pupil.
ANGELO DA SIENA
(active 1447-1456) Early Renaissance Italian painter (Ferrara)
ANGELO DI NALDUCCIO
(active 1342-1389) Medieval Italian sculptor (Siena)
(active 1640-1650) Baroque Italian painter (Rome)
(1854-1926) French painter trained at the Académie de Peinture et de Dessin in Rouen, where he won prizes. Although he failed to gain entry to the Ecole des Beaux-Arts in Paris, Angrand began to win a controversial local reputation for canvases in a loosely Impressionist manner. In 1882 he secured a post as a schoolteacher at the Collège Chaptal in Paris. With this security he was able to make contacts in progressive artistic circles, and in 1884 he became a founder-member of the Salon des Indépendants. His paintings of this period depict rural interiors and kitchen gardens, combining the broken brushwork of Monet and Camille Pissarro with the tonal structure of Bastien-Lepage (e.g. In the Garden, 1884; priv. col.).
(1604-1669) Baroque French sculptor
(1613-1686) Baroque French sculptor
(1538-1565) Mannerism Italian painter (Cremona)
(1530-1625) Mannerism Italian painter, perhaps the best-known female artist of the 16th c, influenced, as were many of her contemporaries, by *Titian. She mainly produced portraits and self-portraits. Her pursuit of a professional career did not conflict with contemporary notions of womanhood, largely because of her noble birth, and she was hailed as a prodigal exception. A. trained for 3 years under the man who appears in her Bcrnadino Catnpi Painthig Sojomsba Anguissola (late 1550s), in which she portrays herself as his subject. From 1559—80 she was court painter to the Queen of Spain.
(1889 - 1974) Russian painter, draughtsman and stage designer. He studied at the University of St Petersburg (later Petrograd) in 1908 and in the private studio of Savely Zeidenberg (1862–1924). In 1909–10 he attended the studio of Yan Tsyonglinsky (1850–1914) in St Petersburg, where he became acquainted with the avant-garde artists Yelena Guro (1877–1913), Mikhail Matyushin and Matvey Vol’demar (1878–1914). In 1911–12 he worked in the studios of Maurice Denis and Félix Vallotton in Paris, then in Switzerland (1913) before returning to St Petersburg. As a painter he was a modernist, and his work developed rapidly towards abstraction, although he did not adhere to any particular branch of it. His works of the time use various devices of stylization and decorativeness, and some of them echo the free associations of Marc Chagall, but fundamentally they remain geometrically based compositions. In 1919–20 he made a series of abstract sculptural assemblages and a great number of abstract collages.
(1936— ) British abstract sculptor. At first influenced by *Caro, A. produces characteristic works of thin, colourfully painted, sheet steel.
(1910—1988) Italian painter and highly successful society portraitist, notably of British royalty.
(1861-1932) French painter. He came to Paris in 1882 and studied art at the Ateliers of Bonnat and Cormon, where he was a contemporary and friend of Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec, Emile Bernard and Vincent van Gogh. His early work shows the influence of Impressionism and of Edgar Degas. In 1887 Anquetin and Bernard devised an innovative method of painting using strong black contour lines and flat areas of colour; Anquetin aroused much comment when he showed his new paintings, including the striking Avenue de Clichy: Five O’Clock in the Evening (1887; Hartford, CT, Wadsworth Atheneum) at the exhibition of Les XX in Brussels and at the Salon des Indépendants in Paris in 1888. The new style, dubbed Cloisonnisme by the critic Edouard Dujardin (1861–1949), resulted from a study of stained glass, Japanese prints and other so-called ‘primitive’ sources; it was close to the Synthetist experiments of Paul Gauguin and was adopted briefly by van Gogh during his Arles period. Anquetin’s works were shown alongside Gauguin’s and Bernard’s at the Café Volpini exhibition in 1889, where they attracted considerable attention among younger artists.
(1934— ) Italian artist who works with stone, metal, wood and whose concerns are energy, gravity, space, time and infinity, e.g. Verso Infinite (1969). One of the original members of the *Arte Povera group whose proponent Germano Celant said of A.'s work that it 'exalts precariousness'. From 1969 he began using words which more explicitly connected images and ideas as in *Conceptual art. In the 1980s A. created site-specific installations.
ANSALDO, G. Andrea
(1584-1638) Baroque Italian painter (Genoa)
(1492-1556) High Renaissance Italian painter (Parma)
(active 1170-1230) Medieval Italian sculptor (Parma)
(12th c). Northern Italian Romanesque sculptor, executed a relief of the Deposition (1178) and other work in Parma cathedral.
(1579/80-1620) Baroque Dutch painter
(1499-1555) Northern Renaissance Dutch graphic artist (Amsterdam)
(1460-1528) Early Renaissance Italian sculptor (Mantua)
(1817-1878) Romanticism French painter (Paris)
(1635-1675) Baroque Spanish painter (Madrid)
ANTOLINI Giovanni Antonio
(1756-1841) Italian painter.
ANTONIO da Sangallo the Elder
(1460-1534) Architect, woodworker, sculptor and engineer, brother of Giuliano da Sangallo. The earlier part of his career was overshadowed by that of his brother, with whom he ran a workshop in Florence for nearly 40 years until the latter’s death. Their first known work of collaboration is the Crucifix (1481) for the high altar of SS Annunziata, Florence. This was followed by a model (1482) for the church and monastery of the Badia, Florence, the seating (1487–8) in the refectory of S Pietro, Perugia, and a model (1491) for S Maria Maddalena dei Pazzi, Florence. Antonio was also active as a military engineer, occasionally representing his brother on the construction sites of fortifications. The first independent work attributed to him (c. 1490) is the Crucifix for the church of S Gallo (destr.), which is now kept in SS Annunziata, Florence.
ANTONIO da Sangallo the Younger
(1483–1546) Italian architect.
ANTONELLO da Messina
(1430-1479) Early Renaissance Sicilian painter. In Naples he saw work by Netherlandish artists and may have studied under Colantonio, whose style was based on that of J. van Eyck. He learnt Van Eyck's method of oil painting and achieved a delicate synthesis between the Northern and Italian styles. Working in Venice (1475) he passed his knowledge on to G. *Bellini, altering his manner of painting and through him exercising great influence on the development of the Venetian school. His paintings include St Sebastian, Crucifixion, Portrait of a Young Man, St Jerome in his Study and Condottiere.
(1430-1508/12) Early Renaissance Italian painter (Rome)
ANTONIO DA FIRENZE
(active first half 15th cent.) Early Renaissance Italian painter (Florence)
ANTONIO DA NEGROPONTE
(active 1450-1500) Early Renaissance Italian painter (Venice)
ANTONIO DA TRENTO
(active c. 1527) High Renaissance Italian graphic artist (Bologna)
(active 1369-1419) Medieval Italian painter (Venice)
ANTROPOV, Aleksey Petrovich
(1716-1795) Rococo Russian painter