(fl. mid-4th ñ. âñ) Greek painter who studied near Corinth under *Pamphilos. He became court painter to Philip and Alexander the Great, whose portrait he alone was permitted to paint. His reputation rests simply on literary references since none of his paintings nor his treatise on painting survive.
(5th ñ. âñ) Greek painter famous for panel as opposed to wall paintings and called 'skiagraphos' ('the shadow painter') because he introduced shading into his work to achieve more naturalistic effects. He also experimented with foreshortening.
(1921- ) Dutch painter, leader in the Dutch Reflex group which, in 1948, became the international *Cobra group. His hall-marks are violent colours and an impassioned style stemming from Van Gogh and the Expressionists.
APOLLONIO DI GIOVANNI
(1414-1465) Early Renaissance Italian painter (Florence)
(1754-1817) Neoclassicism Italian painter and designer. He had been intended to follow his father’s career in medicine but instead entered the private academy of the painter Carlo Maria Giudici (1723–1804). He received instruction in drawing, copying mainly from sculpture and prints. He studied Raphael through the engravings of Marcantonio Raimondi, as well as the work of Giulio, Anton Raphael Mengs and, again from prints, the compositions in Trajan’s Column. He then joined the class of the fresco painter Antonio de’ Giorgi (1720–93), which was held at the Ambrosiana picture gallery in Milan, where he was able to study Raphael’s art directly from the cartoon of the School of Athens and the work of Leonardo’s followers, particularly Bernardino Luini. He also frequented the studio of Martin Knoller, where he deepened his knowledge of painting in oils; and he studied anatomy at the Ospedale Maggiore in Milan with the sculptor Gaetano Monti (1750–1847). His interest in aesthetic issues was stimulated by the classical poet Giuseppe Parini, whom he drew in two fine pencil portraits (Milan, Brera; Milan, Mus. Poldi Pezzoli). In 1776 he entered the Accademia di Belle Arti di Brera to follow the painting courses of Giuliano Traballesi, from whom he received a mastery of the fresco technique and the encouragement to make copies after Domenichino and Correggio.
(1929- ) U.S. artist. Having first worked in *performance, film and sculpture, since 1974 she has emerged as one of the most serious and interesting U.S. feminist *Postmodern painters. Her cartoon-like drawings in separate panels, using ink and rhoplex on parchment-like stiff vellum, were an offshoot of *Conceptual art — she uses words and pictures which appear to be, yet defy, narrative. In these, as in her large multi-panel paintings, sometimes freestanding two-sided canvases, as well as on the wall, e.g. the series 'Marginalia' (1991). A. deals with issues of power/powerlessness, alienation, 'the failure of individuals to connect', public vs. private feelings, disaffection, rejection, humiliation and what amounts to the near-breakdown of communication in our society. Her technique, using the palette knife to build up the dominant images in muted browns, reds and yellows, is contrasted to the smaller, often repetitive, scenes drawn like comic strips around the main image.
APT, Ulrich the Elder
(c. 1460-1522) Northern Renaissance German painter from Augsburg. His works include the Matthiius Altarpiece and the dramatic and experimental Lamentation over the Dead (Christ, both in Munich. The Portrait of a Young Man, discovered in the 19th c, was remarkably like A.'s work but showed the initials 'L.S.' on a piece of armour. A.'s best works were reattributed to 'L.S.' until it was recently shown that the initials were simply those of the armourer.
(1567-1617) Flemish architects.
(1460-c. 1530) High Renaissance Italian painter (Parma)
(born 1935) Latin American painter from Ecuador.
ARCANGELO DI JACOPO DEL SELLAIO
(1477/78-1530) High Renaissance Italian painter (Florence)
(1887-1964) Sculptor born in Kiev. He went to Paris in 1908 and soon made contact with the Cubists; his work was among the most important in the development of the new styles in 20th-c. sculpture. From essentially Cubist premises he evolved new approaches and techniques introducing (1912), for example, collage in sculpture, i.e. using wood, metal and glass, etc., on the same work. His Boxers (1913) is an important landmark in the assimilation by modern sculptors of the vitalist nature of primitive art.
(1530-1593) Mannerism Milanese painter sometimes considered an ancestor of the Surrealists by virtue of his fantasy portrait heads; these are made up of fruit, vegetables, flowers, fragments of landscape, birds, animals, human bodies, tools, weapons, etc. Worked (in conventional style) at Milan cathedral and as painter to the Hapsburg court at Prague (1562—87).
ARELLANO, Juan de
(1614-1676) Baroque Spanish painter (Madrid)
(1585-1631) Baroque Dutch landscape painter. His landscapes are heavily populated with figure groups.
ARFE, goldsmith family
(16th cent.) High Renaissance Spanish goldsmith
ARGUNOV, Ivan Petrovich
(1729-1802) Rococo Russian painter
ARNOLD of Nijmegen (see AERT VAN ORT)
(active 1490-1536) Northern Renaissance Flemish glass painter
ARDIZZONE Edward Jeffrey Irving
(1900-1979). British artist in etching, lithography, pen drawing and watercolour. He was an official war artist (1940-5). He ill. more than 130 books, including children's books, e.g. Tim All Alone (1956), and an edition of Villon's poems and publ. Diary of A War Artist (1974).
(1929— ) Israeli painter, print maker and writer on art. Born in Bukovina, he has lived and worked in Paris since 1954. A. is one of the most original and accomplished living figurative artists who 1st became known as an abstract painter. He stopped painting in 1965 and drew from life until 1973. A. has curated exhibitions and written on Poussin, Ingres, etc.
(1862 - 1930) Russian painter. He trained at the Moscow School of Painting, Sculpture and Architecture under Vasily Perov, Aleksey Savrasov, Vladimir Makovsky and Vasily Polenov and joined the WANDERERS (Peredvizhniki) in 1889 and the Union of Russian Artists in 1903. While indebted to the realist painting of Perov, Arkhipov also gave particular attention to effects of light, rhythm and texture, even in his most didactic canvases, such as Washerwomen (late 1890s; two versions Moscow, Tret’yakov Gal. and St Petersburg, Rus. Mus.). Arkhipov found a rich and diverse source of inspiration in the Russian countryside and the peasantry; he painted peasants at work, the melting of the snow, the local church and priest, the villages of the far north and the White Sea. Works such as The Lay Brother (1891) and Northern Village (1903; both Moscow, Tret’yakov Gal.) are evidence of Arkhipov’s important position in the history of late 19th-century Russian landscape painting. His concentration on plein-air painting was shared to a considerable extent by other representatives of the Union of Russian Artists such as Baksheyev, Leonard Turzhansky (1875–1945) and Sergey Vinogradov (1869–1938).
(1928 - 2005) Franco-American *assemblage artist, a member of the *Nouveau realisme group, influenced by *Klem. He worked on series like poubelles (trash cans, displaying their contents) and accumulations (e.g. a cube 1m. cubed in volume full of toothbrushes), which are ironic statements about the detritus of the consumer society. *decollage, *Rotella, *Villegle, *Hains and *Vostell.
(1916- ) British sculptor. In 1956 he won a competition for a war memorial at Krefeld. He was shown in the 1963 Darmstadt exhibition 'Evidences of Anxiety in Modern Art'. A. works almost entirely in plaster cast into bronze, concentrating on achieving an effect of movement and vitality in his figures, notable in the Walking Group (1951). His works include the Figure Lying on its Side, No. 5 (1959) and Pandarus 8 (1963).
ARMLEDER John Michael
(1948— ) Swiss artist known for combining pictures (of simple and random designs with references to formal abstraction) and objects (furniture, anonymous consumer articles and musical instruments) which interact in installations, e.g. 'Furniture Sculptures' of the 1980s.
(1893—1973) British painter, a member (1933) of the *Unit One group. A.'s style, partly influenced by Surrealism, includes murals and theatre designs.
(1889 - 1960) Pin -Up Art. Born in Seattle in 1899, Armstrong grew up in the rugged environment of the Pacific Northwest. He moved to Chicago in 1908 and later enrolled at the Art Institute, where he studied for three years under the master draftsman John Vanderpoel. He then went on to New York, where he became a student of Robert Henri. Athletic as well as artistic, Armstrong both boxed and sketched at the New York Athletic Club.
ARNOLFO di Cambio
(1232—1302) Italian sculptor and architect. Assistant to N. Pisano both on the shrine of S. Dominic in Bologna and the pulpit at Siena. His statue of Charles of Anjou (before 1277) is the 1st modern portrait statue by a known artist and the design of his wall tomb of Cardinal de Braye (the cardinal lies on a bier beneath the Madonna and Child in glory) was a model for over a c. A. was an architect of the cathedral of S. Maria del Fiore and the church of S. Croce, both Florence, and also carved the sculptural decoration on the cathedral facade.
ARP Jean or Hans
(1888-1966) Alsatian sculptor, graphic artist, painter and writer. He exhibited with Der *Blaue Reiter artists and contributed to Der Sturm, and his interest in poetry inspired a great deal of his graphic work. In 1915 he moved to Zurich and, together with his wife, Sophie Taeuber, started to make *collages according to the 'law of chance'. In 1916/17 he made his 1st abstract sculptures; he participated in the Dada movement and the 1st Surrealist exhibition in 1925. In addition to sculptures, reliefs (one at the Unesco building in Paris), collages and drawings, A. also designed tapestries and wrote much, both poetry and prose in French and German. His works are usually or near abstract but nevertheless identify themselves quite clearly with natural forms.
ARNOLFO DI CAMBIO
(1245-1310) Medieval Italian sculptor
ARPINO Giuseppe Cesari (called 'Chevalier d'Arpio')
(1568-1640) One of the last and most conservative of Italian Mannerist painters. He designed the mosaics for the dome of St Peter's, Rome, and painted the frescoes in S. Martino, Naples (1589-91), and a series of large histories in the Conservatori Palace, Rome (1591—1636). Caravaggio was his pupil.
(1937- ). Spanish artist, based in France and Italy until Franco's death in 1975, whose politically and culturally radical targets were not only political conservatism but also new art orthodoxies. He attacked *Duchamp (Live and Lei Die: The Tragic End of Marcel Duchamp, 1965) and the *Nouveau realisme group, *Miro and *Dali. Co-founder of the Salon de la Jeune Peinture in 1963, A.'s aim was to create 'art that engages the spirit of art more than its vocabulary', a statement which characterizes all his activities. In solidarity with Cuban intellectuals, he and other members of Jeune Peinture painted a mural in homage to the Cuban Revolution and organized a 'Salle Rouge pour le Vietnam'. In 1968 they started the Atelier Populaire at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts, Paris, producing more than 300,000 posters. A.'s passionate commitment to radicalism informs his idiosyncratic, often autobiographical, work, which also has great formal qualities recognized widely after the 1980s.
(1923- ) U.S. painter and sculptor. While at Cornell University, Ithaca, N.Y., where he read chemistry and biology, he took painting and drawing classes. He then studied with *Ozenfant 1949-50 before temporarily turning away from painting. In N.Y. he ran a woodwork studio where he started making furniture. In the 1960s he became involved with art full time and continued to explore the theme of furniture through 3-dimensional constructions of painted or polychrome wood. A. also paints large, usually monochrome depictions of interiors, buildings and objects on celofex.
ARTHOIS, Jacques d'
(1613-1686) Baroque Flemish painter (Brussels)