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  Old Masters  
  Dulle Griet (Mad Meg) c. 1562 (200 Kb); Oil on panel, 117.4 x 162 cm; Museum Mayer van den Bergh, Antwerp
Pieter Bruegel the Elder, generally considered the greatest Flemish painter of the 16th century, is by far the most important member of the family.
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This section will provide you with historic artists whose art formed a culture of their own. The true values of their arts has been established over the long years since the passing of the old masters, and styles replicated and improved many times along the way.

Studio Treasure has historical information as well as artistic analysis of many artworks composed by the old masters. Artists such as Pieter Bruegel The Elder, Pavel Nikolaevich Filonov, Caspar David Friedrich, Odilon Redon, Vincent Van Gogh, have their own articles on the left, and external links are provided to other outside sources for more information on many other artists below.



Art History Culture Museums Artists Old Masters Gallery oil-painting etching drawing sculpture Giotto di Bondone Jan van Eyck Roger Van der Weyden Piero della Francesca Andrea Mantegna Alessandro Botticelli Hieronymus Bosch Leonardo da Vinci Albrecht Durer Lucas Cranach the Elder Michelangelo Buonarroti Titian Raphael Hans Holbein The Younger Jacopo Tintoretto Paolo Veronese El Greco Caravaggio Peter Paul Rubens Frans Snyders Nicolas Poussin Francisco de Zurbaran Anthony Van Dyck Diego Velazquez Rembrandt van Rijn Jan Vermeer Giovanni Battista Tiepolo Jean Chardin Joshua Reynolds Francisco Goya Jacques-Louis David masterpiece Odilon Redon ancient art abstract expressionism art deco art nouveau Barbizon School baroque Bauhaus byzantine classicism Pieter Bruegel The Elder fauvism Gothic impressionism mannerism Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood Realism, Renaissance Rococo romanticism surrealism Pavel Filonov symbolism


DADDI, Bernardo
(c. 1280-1348)MedievalItalian painter (Florence)
DAEL, Jan Frans van
(1764-1840)RomanticismBelgian painter (Paris)
DAGGIÙ (see CAPPELLA, Francesco)
(1711-1774)BaroqueItalian painter (Bergamo)
DAHL, Johan Christian Clausen
(1788-1857)RomanticismNorwegian painter Dahl Johan Christian(b Bergen, 24 Feb 1788; d Dresden, 14 Oct 1857). Norwegian painter and collector, active in Germany. His paintings, imbued with Romantic and patriotic sentiments, had a strong influence on the landscape tradition both in Germany (especially Dresden) and in his native Norway.
DAHL, Michael
(c. 1659-1743)BaroqueSwedish painter (London)
DALEM, Cornelis van
(c. 1530-1576)MannerismFlemish painter (Antwerp)
DALEN, Cornelis van, the Elder
(c. 1602-1665)BaroqueDutch graphic artist
(d. 1409)MedievalItalian sculptor (Emilia)
Dali Salvador (1904—89). Spanish painter, designer of jewellery, etc. and stage-sets, book ill. and writer, notorious for his extravagant and eccentric statements about himself. He joined the Surrealist movement in Pans in 1929 making
the Surrealist films Le Chien Andalou (1929) and L'Age d'or (1931) with L. Bunuel and painting such works as The Persistence of Memory (1931) and Premonition of Civil War (1936). His paintings, which he has called 'hand-painted dream photographs', are characterized by minute detail, virtuoso technique, ingenuity and showmanship together with elements of Freudian dream symbolism. His religious paintings include Christ of St John of the Cross (1951). Later works include ills for Alice's Adventures in Wonderland (1969). His publs include Diary of a Genius (trs. 1966) and his Unspeakable Confessions ... (trs. 1976).
DALMATA, Giovanni
(1440-1510)Early RenaissanceItalian sculptor
(active 1428-61)Early RenaissanceCatalan painter (Barcelona) Dalmau Lluis (d. 1460). Spanish painter who worked at the court of Aragon and helped to extend the influence of Flemish painting in Spain. In 1431 D, was sent on a mission to Bruges and probably there learnt to follow Van Eyck's style, evident in his great work Virgin and Councillors
Damian Cosmas(b Benediktbeuren, bapt 28 Sept 1686; d Munich, 10 May 1739). Painter and architect, son of Hans Georg Asam. As a youth, he worked as his father’s assistant, for example at Schloss Schönach (1704) and at the Maria-Hilf-Kirche (1708), Freystadt. After his father’s death in 1711, Cosmas Damian went to Rome, studying at the Accademia di S Luca under Carlo Maratti; he was awarded the academy’s first prize for his brush drawing of the Miracle of St Pius (Rome, Accad. N. S Luca) in 1713. That year he returned to Germany. In 1717 he married Maria Anna, daughter of the engraver Franz Anton Morl (1671–1734); their son, Franz Erasmus Asam (1720–95), produced few works of his own, acting mainly as an assistant to his father. In 1724 Cosmas Damian bought an estate he named Asamisch-Maria-Einsiedel-Thal in Munich-Thalkirchen, even building a chapel of his own there in 1739. Throughout his life Cosmas Damian worked mainly on large commissions, painting and sometimes also acting as architect, sometimes collaborating with his brother Egid Quirin; his work took him to the Upper Palatinate, Upper and Lower Bavaria, Baden and Swabia as well as to the Tyrol, Switzerland, Bohemia and Silesia. Besides church dignitaries, his patrons included the court and the aristocracy. He was given the protection of the Elector’s court in Munich in 1719 and subsequently some minor offices at various other courts. On large-scale commissions he always employed workshop assistants as well as members of his family. His pupils included Thomas Christian Scheffler (1699–1756), Matthaus Günther, Joseph Gregor Winck, Johann Adam Schopf (1702–72) and Johann Adam Muller ( fl 1718–38).
DANCKERTS, Cornelis the Elder
(c. 1603-1656)BaroqueDutch graphic artist (Amsterdam)
D'Ancona Edward.  Pin-Up Art.
(1596-1657)BaroqueItalian painter (Florence)
(1646-1712)BaroqueItalian painter (Florence)
DANDRÉ-BARDON, Michel-François
(1700-1783)BaroqueFrench painter
DANHAUSER, Josef Franz
(1805-1845)RomanticismAustrian painter
DANIELE da Volterra
(1509-1566)High RenaissanceItalian painter Daniele da Volterra. see Volterra Daniele da
D'Arcangelo Allan (1930- ). U.S. artist, noted in the mid-1960s for his *Pop art paintings of highways.
(1758-1841)NeoclassicismGerman sculptor
DANTAN, Jean-Pierre
(1800-1869)RomanticismFrench sculptor
DANTI, Vincenzo
(1530-1576)MannerismItalian sculptor (Florence)
DARET, Jacques
(c. 1404-1470)Northern RenaissanceFlemish painter (Tournai)
Darger Henry(1892–1973) was a reclusive American writer and artist who worked as a janitor in Chicago, Illinois. He has become famous for his posthumously discovered 15,145-page fantasy manuscript called The Story of the Vivian Girls, in What is known as the Realms of the Unreal, of the Glandeco-Angelinnian War Storm, Caused by the Child Slave Rebellion, along with several hundred drawings and watercolor paintings illustrating the story.
DAUBIGNY, Charles-François
(1817-1878)RealismFrench painter Daubigny Charles-Francois (1817—78). French landscape painter associated with the Barbizon school. D. painted chiefly in the Ile-de-France, but travelled in Italy, Spain, Britain and Holland. Typical of his work are The Lock at Optevoz and River Scene with Ducks.
(1460-1523)Northern RenaissanceGerman sculptor
(1703-1763)BaroqueFrench graphic artist (Paris)
(1808-1879)RomanticismFrench painter Daumier Honore (-Victorin) (1808—79). French painter, caricaturist, graphic artist and sculptor. Trained in Paris and attracted to lithography. D. made his living from 1830 with cartoons in the satirical journals La Caricature and Le Charivari. He lampooned the government (being imprisoned in 1832 for his attack on King Louis-Philippe), the bourgeoisie in the Robert Macaire series and the legal profession. From about 1848 D. attempted to establish himself as a serious painter in oils, but he was hampered by his fame as a left-wing cartoonist, his dependence on his fellow-painters for most of his subjects and his refusal to give his works the finish then considered necessary. A brief period of success under the Third Republic was followed by neglect, poverty and near-blmdness. Since his death he has been recognized as a pioneer, chiefly of Expressionism, e.g. The Painter before his I'.ascl, a master draughtsman, e.g. We want Barabbas!, a major graphic artist and a sculptor of vigour and expressiveness. In his sketches and oil paintings of Don Quixote and Sancho Panza D. created a great modern rein-terpretation of Cervantes's characters, e.g. Don Quixote and Sancho Panza.
DAVID d'Angers
(1788-1856)NeoclassicismFrench sculptor
DAVID, Gerard
(c. 1460-1523)Northern RenaissanceFlemish painter (Bruges) David Gerard (c. 1460-1523). Netherlands painter who succeeded Memlinc as the most important painter of the school. Born in Oudewater, D. was admitted to the painters' guild in Bruges m 1484. He was influenced by earlier Netherlands masters, in particular Van Eyck and Van der Goes, but his work shows close relationship with the painting of Geertgen tot Sintjans and the miniaturists of Bruges. He was commissioned by the town of Bruges to paint a number of works, including 2 pictures to warn officials of the stern retribution for corruption and injustice — Tlie Judgement of Cambyses and The Flaying ofSisamnes — a Last Judgement and Virgin with Child and Angels. Other important works are The Baptism of Christ, 'The Marriage at , 2 landscapes, and The Virgin and Child with Saints and Donor, the most serene and successful * sacra conversazione painted in N. Europe.
DAVID, Jacques-Louis
(1748-1825)NeoclassicismFrench painter David Jacques-Louis(1748—1825). French painter, the leading figure ot Neoclassical painting. Trained in the Rococo tradition ot Boucher by J.-M. Vien, D. repudiated this training with his Oath of the Horatii, shown in Rome and Paris in 1784 and immediately recognized as a landmark in painting. Its colouring was lucid and cool, its drawing strong, simple and severe. In its theme it advocated a return from the diversions of a pleasure-loving aristocracy to the traditionally austere virtues of the early Roman republic. D. became virtual dictator of the arts in France from the outbreak of the Revolution to the fall of Napoleon; few men have exercised such power over the art and taste of their period. His subjects — allegory, history and mythology — and his search for an ideal beauty based on the supposed canons of classical sculpture were to become the hall-marks of academic art during the 19th IX celebrated the victories and extolled the martyrs of the Revolution, e.g. The Death of Marat; in Return of the Sons of Brutus the theme of republican virtue recurs. IX was himself a deputy and was briefly imprisoned after the tall of Robespierre (1794); from his cell he painted the View of the I.uxenihourg (hardens, a small masterpiece of landscape painting, wholly romantic ami warmly evocative in feeling. His portraits too, are far from austere, e.g. of M. Seriziat and Mine Senziat, and of the famous beauty and conversationalist Mine Recamier (1800). Later he became the pamter-advocate of Napoleon, e.g. The (Coronation of Napoleon and his work was fundamental in the creation of the Empire style.
Davies Arthur Bowen
(1862-1928). U.S. painter of romanticized landscapes with whimsical, elongated figures, e.g. Crescendo (1910). He was a member of The *Eight. He supported new trends and artistic independence and took a leading part in organizing the *Armory Show. After it he worked for a time in a modified Cubist style. See also: Davies Arthur (2)
Davringhausen Heinrich 
(German, 1894-1970)
DAWE, George
(1781-1829)RomanticismEnglish painter (St. Petersburg)
De Andrea John
(1941- ). U.S. *Hyper-Realist sculptor of figures cast from life which, through the perfection ot his models, appear to be idealized as in classical sculpture, e.g. Scaled Man and Woman (1981). Sometimes the figures re-enact 3-dimensional, realist scenes from works such as *Manet's lx Dejeuner stir I'herbe or Allegory: After Com bet (1988).
De Bry Theodore 
(1528 – 1598) was a engraver, goldsmith and editor who travelled around Europe, starting from the City of Liège (where he was born and grown up), then to Strasburg, Antwerp, London and Frankfurt, i.e. a true European of his time, a bit like Erasmus. At his time in the 16th century, the city of Liège was the center of the Prince-Bishopric of Liège, independent of neighbouring countries, i.e. Burgondy, Netherlands, Germany and France. See relevant map on that link. Theodorus de Bry was born in 1528 in Liege, East of today's (2008) Belgium, to a family who had escaped the destruction of the City of Dinant in 1466 by the Duke of Burgondy, so-called Philip the Good and his son Charles the Bold. As a man he trained from his grand father, Thiry de Bry senior (? - 1528), and under his father Thiry de Bry junior (1495 - 1590), a family of jewelers and engravers, engraving copper plates. The art of copper plate engraving was the technology of that time required for printing images and drawings as part of books. In 1524, Thiry de Bry junior married Catherine le Blavier, daughter of Conrad le Blavier de Jemeppe. Their son Theodorus de Bry became also a jeweler, engraver and book editor and publisher and he became famous most notably for his depictions of early European expeditions to the Americas.
Decamps Alexandre-Gabriel
(1803—60). French painter, lithographer, caricaturist and book ill. His travels in Turkey, which antedated those of Delacroix in Morocco, gave him material for successful exotic landscapes and genre paintings.
(1627-1679)BaroqueFlemish sculptor (Venice)
DECAMPS, Alexandre Gabriel
(1803-1860)RomanticismFrench painter
DECKER, Coenraet
(1651-1685)BaroqueDutch graphic artist
DEFERNEX, Jean-Baptiste
(c. 1729-1783)RococoFrench sculptor (Paris)
Degas Edgar (Hilaire Germain)
(1834-1917). French painter, draughtsman, sculptor and graphic artist, the son of a rich banker and a Creole mother. After a typical bourgeois education he studied law, but in 1855 went to the Ecole des Beaux-Arts in Paris, then to Naples and Rome. In 1861 he was back in Paris, where he painted portraits and compositions in a severely classical style, later turning to the painting of dancers, the races, town life and portraits in an environment, which established his reputation. Though not in agreement with Impressionist theory he allied himself with the movement from its beginning in protest against sterile academic theory and practice, and exhibited with the Impressionist painters until 1886. His life was marred by hypochondria increasing with old age, and with his eyesight failing towards the end of his life, he shunned all society.
D. discovered and appropriated the new environment of I9th-c. industrial man — the townscape, the street, the interiors of the places of entertainment and work of all social classes. He observed the behaviour of the female and male human animal against these settings with analytical detachment, biting wit and an unfailing eye for the typical. For this purpose he made use of photography, the store of knowledge accumulated m museums, the technical knowledge of craftsmen and the visual discoveries of the Impressionist painters. He strove after perfection in every possible way, for he believed that given sensibility the mastery of the technical means was decisive. He experimented therefore with graphic media, perfected the art of pastel, made monotypes and etchings and modelled in clay and wax in order to understand better the movements of his dancers and racehorses. These stuidies, which were never intended for exhibition, were cast m bronze after his death and thus preserved. He never painted on the spot, but composed only after much observation, many studies and a most intimate knowledge of the subject, relying on a prodigious visual memory. The vision of eternal truth in fleeting reality was D.'s characteristic contribution. There is a gradual development from the early classical composition of the Young Spartans (1860) with its cool colours, to the new science of colour and movement m the Washerwomen (1879), the Miss Lola, the series of ballet dancers, drawings, paintings and pastels of women at their toilette, washing themselves and dressing, and especially in the near-abstract monotypes.
De Groux, Henry
(b St-Josse-ten-Noode, nr Brussels, 16 Nov 1866; d Marseille, 12 Jan 1930). Painter, pastellist and lithographer, son of Charles De Groux. He studied under Jean-Franois Portaels from the age of 11 and at the Acadmie de Bruxelles (1882–3). Until 1890 he participated in exhibitions organized by the avant-garde circles La Chrysalide, L’Essor and Les XX, of which he was a member. He was a close friend of William Degouve de Nuncques, in whose studio he executed the frieze Procession of Archers (pastel, 1886–90; Belgium, priv. col.), first exhibited at Les XX in 1887 and 1889, and the Mocking of Christ (1889; Avignon, Pal. Roure), to which he gave his friend’s features. Masses of tangled bodies with crazed expressions haunt his considerable oeuvre, marked by literary symbolism and by a tendency towards depicting such renowned figures as Christ, Napoleon and Wagner.
De Kooning Willem
(1904-97). Dutch painter, influenced by *De Stijl and Flemish Expressionists, who moved to the U.S.A. (1926) where he worked as a decorator. He worked on the *W.P.A. art project (1938) and joined the N.Y. Group of *Abstract Expressionist painters, becoming a leading member. His painting has its roots in *Gorky's Surrealism and he often uses open allusions to reality which may be the starting-point or may accidentally occur during the painting's execution. His best-known series, the Women (1952) was the first sign of the 'new figuration' in N.Y. painting. Its violent imagery and technique caused a sensation. It was followed by a series of landscapes and a return r. 1963 to the theme of woman, now painted in flamboyant, almost satiric style.
(1798-1863)RomanticismFrench painter Delacroix Eugene(Ferdinand Victor) (1798-1863). Leading French Romantic painter, draughtsman, lithographer, writer and art critic. It is possible that he was a natural son of Talleyrand. After studies with Guerin, a follower of David, he worked at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts, Paris, for a while. In 1821, when D. was in financial difficulties, he was helped by his friend Gericault, whose work he greatly admired. D. became known from 1822 with his painting Dante and Virgil in the Inferno, shown in the Salon. During a visit to Britain in 1825 D. met Lawrence and Wilkie. In 1831 he was awarded the Legion d'honneur and during the following year visited Morocco and Spam, a journey which proved to be crucial for the further development of his work. In 1833 a commission to decorate a salon in the Palais Bourbon was the beginning of a period of very intense work and a number of public commissions on a large scale, which established D. State honours followed and in 1857, after 7 rejections, he was at last elected a member of the French Institute. He was frequently ill now, but his monumental work increased and he employed about 30 assistants. His last great work, paintings for the church of St-Sulpice, occupied him until 1861.
D. used the works of his contemporaries Constable, Gencault, Gros and of the past masters, Michelangelo, Poussin, Rubens and others, as sources from which he took what he needed. He applied the same approach to his study of nature and to reality as a whole. He made use of literature for his subjects, of science in his studies of colour relationships, of photography in his study of form, and of lithography in his graphic work. He saw painting as a bridge between painter and spectator, and colour as its most important element. He was original in the realization of related — as against local — colour, and in the use of complementaries and of simultaneous contrast, but it is wrong to see D. as a colounst only. His concern for form and composition increased, and towards the end he achieved a synthesis of these elements. His use of broken colour and the freedom of his brushwork was decisive in the formation of the later Realist and Impressionist painting. D. is best known today for his Massacre of Chios (1824) and the Death of Sardanapalns (1827), and also for Liberty Leading the People (1830). He is also celebrated for his paintings of Morocco in the Louvre, such as the Women of Algiers (1834), his compositions of animal subjects and many watercolours. His religious paintings, e.g. the Pieta (1848), are less known; so are his mural paintings, mainly because of lack of access. His journals (1823—54) and critical writings are valuable as historical documents and as works in their own right.

DELAISTRE, François-Nicolas
(1746-1832)NeoclassicismFrench sculptor
DELAPORTE, Henri-Horace Roland
(1724-1793)NeoclassicismFrench painter (Paris)
DELAROCHE, Hippolyte (see DELAROCHE, Paul)
(1797-1859)RomanticismFrench painter
(1797-1859)RomanticismFrench painter  Delaroche Paul (properly Hippolyte) (1797— 1856). French painter of historical subjects of romantic or sentimental interest derived from works by Sir Walter Scott. Shakespeare and others. Pictures painted with extreme naturalism such as Children of Edward (the Princes in the Tower), 1830, were popular and widely used in history textbooks.
DELAUNAY, Nicolas (see LAUNAY, Nicolas de)
(1739-1792)RococoFrench graphic artist (Paris)
Delaunay Robert (1885-1941). French painter and the originator of *Orphism, which extended the Cubist practice of fragmentation into the held of colour. He started painting r. 1904. His works of 1905—7 are painted in a brilliantly coloured *Divisionist technique. In 1907, under the influence of Cezanne, his palette was temporarily subdued, and during his military service (1908) he began his study of optics. He met *Leger in 1909, and their sombre-coloured paintings pursued a parallel search for structural organization. In the Saint-Severiti and The Eiffel Tower series (1909—10) he returned to his highly coloured palette and by 192, m the Fenetre Sitmdtane paintings, he had isolated pure-colour areas from the motif. In Orphist paintings, D. writes, 'the breaking up of form by light creates coloured planes; these are the structure for description but a pretext'. He saw Orphism as a logical development of Impressionism and Neo-impressionism, but his transition to pure abstraction was probably inspired by *Kupka (c 1911—12). D. was visited in 19T2 by Marc, and Klee, who later trs. his essay On Light. His influence upon the *Blaue Reiter group was considerable and by 1914 he was probably the most influential artist in Paris. His later work, like Leger's, attempted to reconcile his innovations with more traditional forms.
Delaunay Sonia (nee Terk) (1885-1979). Russian painter who settled in Paris (1905), married *Delaunay (1910) and with him was a pioneer of abstract painting (*Orphism). After World War I she concentrated on textile and fashion design but returned to painting in the late 1930s. She exhibited regularly from the early T950S and held retrospectives in Paris (1967) and Lisbon (1972). She designed costumes and decor for Stravinsky's ballet Dances Concertantes (1968).
(active mid 15th century)Northern RenaissanceFlemish sculptor (Tournai)
DELEN, Dirck van
(1604/5-1671)BaroqueDutch painter
DELFF, Cornelis Jacobsz
(c. 1570-1643)BaroqueDutch painter (Delft)
DELFF, Jacob Willemsz I
(c. 1550-1601)Northern RenaissanceDutch painter (Delft)
DELFF, Jacob Willemsz II
(1619-1661)BaroqueDutch painter (Delft)
DELFF, Willem Jacobsz
(1580-1638)BaroqueDutch graphic artist (Delft)
DELL, Peter the Elder
(c. 1490-1552)Northern RenaissanceGerman sculptor (Würzburg)
Delorme, Anthonie (see LORME, Anthonie de)
(c. 1610-1673)BaroqueDutch painter
Della RobbiaLuca
(b ?Florence, July 1399–July 1400; d Florence, 20 Feb 1482). He was the son of Simone di Marco della Robbia, a member of the Arte della Lana, the wool-workers’ guild. According to Vasari, Luca was apprenticed to the goldsmith Leonardo di Ser Giovanni and at about the age of 15 was taken to Rimini where he made bas-reliefs for Sigismondo Pandolfo Malatesta; however this information is partly contradicted by chronology. Gaurico also indicated that Luca was trained as a goldsmith, and it is possible that he worked on the Adriatic with a Florentine master such as Niccolo di Piero Lamberti, who went to Venice in 1416. It has also been suggested that he was apprenticed to Nanni di Banco, with whom he may have worked (c. 1420) on the decoration of the Porta della Mandorla in Florence Cathedral (Bellosi, 1981).
 DELVAUX, Laurent
(1696-1778)BaroqueFlemish sculptor
Delvaux Paul
(1897-1994). Belgian painter, leading member of Belgian *Surrealist movement since 1935, although he was never an official member of the Surrealist group. He studied first architecture, then painting at the Brussels Acadenne Royale des Beaux-Arts, and in his early work followed the Expressionists Permeke and De Smet. In the 1930s he came under the influence of Magritte, De Chinco and the Surrealists, though never wholeheartedly adhering to their programme. In characteristic works such as Venus Asleep (1944), The Hands (1941) and Le Corte (1963), he places female nudes, juxtaposed with clothed figures, in incongruous architectural settings, imbuing the whole with the mysterious, disquieting inconsequentiality of a dream, reminiscent of De Chirico's 'metaphysical' painting.
Delville Jean
(b Leuven, 19 Jan 1867; d Brussels, 19 Jan 1953). Belgian painter, decorative artist and writer. He studied at the Académie Royale des Beaux-Arts, Brussels, with Jean-François Portaels and the Belgian painter Joseph Stallaert (1825–1903). Among his fellow students were Eugène Laermans, Victor Rousseau and Victor Horta. From 1887 he exhibited at L’Essor, where in 1888 Mother (untraced), which depicts a woman writhing in labour, caused a scandal. Although his drawings of the metallurgists working in the Cockerill factories near Charleroi were naturalistic, from 1887 he veered towards Symbolism: the drawing of Tristan and Isolde (1887; Brussels, Musées Royaux B.-A.), in its lyrical fusion of the two bodies, reveals the influence of Richard Wagner. Circle of the Passions (1889), inspired by Dante Alighieri’s Divina commedia, was burnt c. 1914; only drawings remain (Brussels, Musées Royaux B.-A.). Jef Lambeaux copied it for his relief Human Passions (1890–1900; Brussels, Parc Cinquantenaire). Delville became associated with Joséphin Péladan, went to live in Paris and exhibited at the Salons de la Rose+Croix, created there by Péladan (1892–5). A devoted disciple of Péladan, he had his tragedies performed in Brussels and in 1895 painted his portrait (untraced). He exhibited Dead Orpheus (1893; Brussels, Gillion-Crowet priv. col.), an idealized head, floating on his lyre towards reincarnation, and Angel of Splendour (1894; Brussels, Gillion-Crowet priv. col.), a painting of great subtlety.
Demuth Charles
(1883-1935). U.S. painter, with *Sheeler the most important exponent of Cubist-Realism (or Precisionism), and also an ill. His preferred subject matter was colonial and industrial architecture, which he treated with exceptional clarity and delicacy of line and colour. His early paintings, many in watercolour, included vaudeville subjects and flower pieces. *Magic Realism.
Denis Maurice
(1870-1943). French painter who followed various styles. He was a leader of the *Nabis and made the famous statement 'A picture — before being a horse, a nude or an anecdotal subject — is essentially a flat surface covered with colours arranged in a certain order.' His picture Homage to Cezanne (1900) shows members of the Nabis admiring a still-life by Cezanne. He painted decorative murals and biblical subjects in modern settings.
De Nittis Giuseppe 
(b Barletta, Puglia, 25 Feb 1846; d Saint-Germain-en-Laye, nr Paris, 21 Aug 1884). Italian painter, pastellist and printmaker. Throughout his career he was committed to a plein-air aesthetic and was particularly interested in rendering varying light effects, a concern that brought him into contact with the Impressionists. He was also acquainted with the members of the Macchiaioli, for whom his work was influential. In addition to oils, he experimented with printmaking and made innovative use of pastels. Practising a restrained, and therefore ‘acceptable’, form of Impressionism, he achieved great success in his lifetime, both nationally and internationally.
De Nuncques DegouveWilliam
(b Monthermé, France, 28 Feb 1867; d Stavelot, 1 March 1935). Belgian painter of French birth. After the Franco-Prussian war (1870–71), his parents settled in Belgium. Although self-taught, he was advised by Jan Toorop, with whom he shared a studio, and later lived with Henry de Groux. In 1894 he married Juliette Massin, a painter and Emile Verhaeren’s sister-in-law, who introduced him to the circle of Symbolist poets. His art, which bears the influence of poetry, transfigures reality in the sense that it affords a view of the invisible. Degouve de Nuncques belonged to the avant-garde group Les XX and later exhibited at the Libre Esthétique. He travelled widely and painted views of Italy, Austria and France, often of parks at night. He excelled in the use of pastel. Two works, in particular, demonstrate the magical quality of his work: Pink House (1892; Otterlo, Kröller–Müller) and Peacocks (1896; Brussels, Mus. A. Mod.).
DEPPE, Ludwig
(active c. 1820)RomanticismGerman painter (Berlin)
De Pisis Filippo
(b Ferrara, 8 May 1896; d Milan, 2 April 1956). Italian painter, poet and writer. He was born into the nobility, and he particularly identified with a 12th-century ancestor, Filippo, a condottiere. De Pisis shared his romantic view of his ancestry with his sister, Ernesta Tibertelli (1895–?1973), who was a distinguished illustrator with libertarian views, and who probably introduced De Pisis to mystical writings and possibly collaborated with him on poems and paintings. De Pisis spent his childhood studying literature, drawing, collecting butterflies and wild flowers and preparing herbaria (now U. Padua). He enrolled at the University of Bologna, where he studied literature and philosophy, in 1914. The following year he met the poet Corrado Govoni and the literary scholars Salvator Gotta and Giuseppe De Robertis. De Pisis maintained an interest in Futurism through the periodicals Lacerba and La voce.
Derain Andre
(1880-1954). French painter, who studied at the Academie Carriere. D. was one of the most original of the *Fauve painters, working at first with *Vlaminck at Chatou and then at Collioure with *Matisse. The Pool of London (1906) shows him using a Neo-Impressionist technique with a freedom inspired by Matisse. Between 1906 and 1909 he was working along parallel lines to *13raque and *Picasso, whom he had met, and even preceded them in his fusion of African and Cezannesque forms, e.g. Baigneuses (1906); but he never wholly responded to *Cubism and after about 1919 withdrew from the avant-garde.
d'Erte  Romain de Tirtoff (pseudonym Erté, a French pronunciation of initials R.T.)
(November 23, 1892 – April 21, 1990) was a Russian born, French artist and designer. Tirtoff was born as Roman Petrov de Tyrtov ( ) in St. Petersburg, Russian Empire in a very distinguished family with roots traced back to 1548. His father Pyotr Ivanovich de Tyrtov was a Fleet Admiral. In 1910-1912 Romain moved to Paris to pursue a career as a designer. This decision was made over strong objections of his father, who wanted Romain to continue a family tradition and to become a naval officer. Romain assumed the pseudonym to avoid disgracing the family. In 1915 he got his first significant contract with Harper's Bazaar magazine, and he went on to an illustrious career that included designing costumes and stage sets.
Erté is perhaps most famous for his elegant fashion designs which capture the art deco period in which he worked. His delicate figures and sophisticated, glamorous designs are instantly recognizable, and his ideas and art influence fashion into the 21st century. His costumes and sets were featured in the Ziegfeld Follies of 1923, many productions of the Folies Bergère, and George White's Scandals. In 1925, Louis B. Mayer brought him to Hollywood to design sets and costumes for a film called Paris. There were many script problems so Erte was given other assignments to keep him busy. He designed for such films as Ben-Hur, The Mystic, Time, the Comedian, Dance Madness and La bohème.
By far his best known image is Symphony in Black, depicting a tall, slender woman draped in black holding a thin black dog. The influential image has been reproduced and copied countless times.
Erté continued working throughout his life designing revues, ballets and operas. He had a major rejuvenation and much lauded interest in his career during the 1960s with the art deco revival. He branched out into the realm of limited edition prints, bronzes and art to wear. Museums around the world purchased dozens of his paintings for their collections.
A sizeable collection of work by Erté can be found at Museum 1999 in Tokyo. 
See also: d'Erte (Cards and Posters)
DERUET, Claude
(1588-1662)BaroqueFrench painter (Nancy)
Descomps Joseph. Art Deco Sculptor
DESCOURTIS, Charles-Melchior
(1753-1820)RococoFrench graphic artist (Paris)
DESHAYS, Jean-Baptiste
(1729-1765)BaroqueFrench painter (Paris)
(c. 1428-1464)Early RenaissanceItalian sculptor (Florence) Desiderio da Settignano (c. 1430— 1464). Florentine sculptor. Born into a family of stonemasons and carvers, D. was greatly influenced by Donatello, of whom he may have been a pupil. Many ot D.'s studies of the Madonna and Child and busts of Florentine women and children have an unsentimental grace and great beauty, e.g. Bust of a Woman. His 2 major works are the tomb of the humanist scholar Carlo Marsuppini and the Tabernacle of the Sacrament.
Desiderio Vincent
(b. 1955) is an American realist painter. He is currently the senior critic at the New York Academy of Art and lives and works in New York City. Desiderio was born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Desiderio received a BA in fine art and art history from Haverford College in 1977. He subsequently studied for one year at the Accademia di Belle Arti in Florence, Italy (77-78), and for four years at the Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts (79-83) at the same time as film-maker David Lynch, Wade Schuman, and many others. His paintings and drawings have been exhibited widely, most recently in solo exhibitions at the Marlborough Gallery in New York. He is a recipient of a Pollock-Krasner Foundation Grant, two National Endowment for the Arts Grants, the Everson Museum of Art Purchase Prize, a Rome Grant from the Creative Artists Network and a Cresson Traveling Scholarship from the Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts. In 1996, he became the first American artist to receive the International Contemporary Art Prize awarded by the Prince Pierre Foundation of the Principality of Monaco. His works are included in the collections of the Metropolitan Museum of Art, the Denver Art Museum, the Everson Museum of Art in Syracuse, New York, Galerie Sammlung Ludwig in Aachen, Germany, the Greenville County Museum of Art in South Carolina and the Indiana University Museum of Art in Indiana, Pennsylvania.
DESMARÉES, Georges (see MARÉES, George de)
(1697-1776)RococoSwedish painter (Munich)
DESPORTES, Alexandre-François
(1661-1743)BaroqueFrench painter
DEVÉRIA, Achille-Jacques-Jean-Marie
(1800-1857)RomanticismFrench graphic artist (Paris)
Deveria Eugene 
(b Paris, 22 April 1805; d Pau, 3 Feb 1865). Painter, brother of Achille Devéria. He was a pupil of Anne-Louis Girodet and Guillaume Lethière but was greatly influenced by his brother. Despite differences of taste and temperament—Eugène had an official career and painted on a grand scale—the brothers remained close until Eugène went to Avignon in 1838. He first exhibited at the Salon of 1824 and had his first success with the Birth of Henry IV (1827; Paris, Louvre). He approached this well-worn subject (made fashionable by the Restoration and usually portrayed in engravings or small-scale works) with unusual panache. The ambitious scale, the crowds of people painstakingly depicted in period costume and the rich colours revealed his desire to raise the subject to the rank of history painting. With Delacroix and Louis Boulanger, Devéria was hailed as a champion of the Romantic movement and the successor to Veronese and Rubens.
(c. 1430-after 1492)Early RenaissanceItalian painter
DIANA, Benedetto
(c. 1460-1525)High RenaissanceItalian painter (Venice)
DIAZ DE LA PEÑA, Narcisse Virgile
(1807-1876)RealismFrench painter (Barbizon) Diaz de la Pena Narcisse (1808-76). French painter of Spanish descent. As a landscape painter he was taught by T. *Rousseau and belonged to the *Barbizon school. He also painted mythological figure groups.
DÍAZ, Diego Valentín
(1586-1680)BaroqueSpanish painter (Valladolid)
Dicksee Frank  (b London, 27 Nov 1853; d London, 17 Oct 1928). English painter and illustrator. He studied in the studio of his father, Thomas Francis Dicksee (1819–95), who painted portraits and historical genre scenes; he then entered the Royal Academy Schools, London, where he was granted a studentship in 1871. He won a silver medal for drawing from the Antique in 1872 and a gold medal in 1875 for his painting Elijah confronting Ahab and Jezebel in Naboth’s Vineyard (untraced), with which he made his début at the Royal Academy in 1876. He also began to work as an illustrator during the 1870s, contributing to Cassell’s Magazine, Cornhill Magazine, The Graphic and other periodicals. During the 1880s he was commissioned by Cassell & Co. to illustrate their editions of Longfellow’s Evangeline (1882), Shakespeare’s Othello (1890) and Romeo and Juliet (1884).
Didot. Firm of French printers founded (1713) by Francois D. (1689—1757). His son Francois Ambrose (1730—1804) completed the development of the system of standard type measure (now called after him) originated by S.-P. Fournier. His younger son Firmin (1764—1 836), one of the great type-cutters, was responsible for the introduction of the 'modern' type-face with its distinctive strictness and regularity of line; he also devised the 1st completely successful stereotype process (r. 1795). With his brother Pierre (1761 —1853) he produced many fine books.
DIETRICH, Christian Wilhelm Ernst
(1712-1774)BaroqueGerman painter (Dresden)
(c. 1600-1661)BaroqueFlemish sculptor (London)
DIJCK, Abraham van
(c. 1635-1672)BaroqueDutch painter (Amsterdam)
DIJCK, Floris Claesz van
(1575-1651)BaroqueDutch painter (Haarlem)
DILLENS, Adolphe-Alexandre
(1821-1877)RealismBelgian painter (Brussels)
DILLENS, Hendrick Joseph
(1812-1872)RealismBelgian painter
Dine Jim
(1935- ). U.S. artist. In the late 1950s and 1960s he collaborated in *Happenings with *Oldenburg and produced *Pop art works and objects. From the early 1970s D.'s oil paintings, prints (perhaps his most successful work, usually sensitive and simple depictions of tools, robes, etc.) and drawings became increasingly figurative. He collaborated with writers, e.g. series of lithographs with R. Padgett (1970).
(c. 1440-c. 1508)Early RenaissanceRussian painter (Moscow) Dionisii (b c. 1440 - d after 1502–3). Russian painter. He worked in Moscow and the surrounding towns and in several northern monasteries, including those of Iosifo-Volokolamsky, Ferapontov and St Paul at Obnorsk (founded 1414). Paintings attributed to him represent the apogee of the classicizing style in Russian religious art, although by the end of his life much of his work was apparently done with the help of assistants. Various sources refer to Dionisy, but he is first mentioned in the Life of Pafnuty of Borovsk, which records that he decorated the cathedral of the Nativity of the Virgin (Rozhdestvo bogoroditsy) in the Pafnut’ev Monastery in Borovsk with wall paintings (c. 1467; destr.), together with the older icon painter, Mitrofan, and their assistants. According to a chronicle source, in 1481 Dionisy, Timofey, Yarets and Konya painted a Deësis with festivals and prophets (destr.) for the cathedral of the Dormition (Uspensky) in the Moscow Kremlin and decorated two of the cathedral’s chapels with wall paintings. In 1482 Dionisy restored the Greek icon of the Virgin Hodegetria in the monastery of the Ascension (Voznesensky) in the Moscow Kremlin after it was damaged by fire. Between 1484 and 1500 the workshop of Dionisy painted an extensive series of icons for the cathedral in the Iosifo-Volokolamsky Monastery. An inventory of 1545 compiled by a contemporary of Dionisy records that of these works 87 were by Dionisy, 37 by his sons Vladimir and Feodosy and 20 by their colleague Paisy.
(active c. 1500)Northern RenaissanceFlemish sculptor
Diveky Josef.  Art Deco.
Dix Otto
(1891 —1969). German painter and graphic artist best known for his paintings and etchings of protest based on his experience of World War I. He became famous with a portfolio of etchings publ. in 1917. His early paintings resemble the primitive style of the Douanier Rousseau, but he later adopted the principles of the *New Objectivity and like *Grosz exposed the corruption of post-war Germany with biting satire; the Hitler era brought persecution to D. After the war he painted mainly religious subjects.
Dobell William (1899-1970). Australian painter, among the earliest to achieve wide recognition. D, was not as openly nationalistic as many of his younger contemporaries; he lived in London from 1929 to 1939, and his cruel realistic portraits owe as much to Hogarth and Rembrandt as to contemporary national or international movements.
DIZIANI, Antonio
(1737-1797)RococoItalian painter (Venice)
DIZIANI, Gaspare
(1689-1767)BaroqueItalian painter (Venice)
DO, Giovanni
(c. 1617-1656)BaroqueSpanish painter (Naples)
DOBSON, William
(1610-1646)BaroqueEnglish painter
Dobuzhinsky Mstislav.
(b Novgorod, 14 Aug 1875; d New York, 20 Nov 1957).Russian graphic artist, painter and stage designer. He first studied art from 1885 to 1887 at the School of the Society for the Encouragement of the Arts, St Petersburg, and then enrolled in St Petersburg University from where he graduated in Law in 1898. Unwilling to give up his early interest in art, in 1899 he went to Munich to study under Anton Azbé and Simon Hollósy and met there the large colony of Russian artists, including Igor’ Grabar’. He also saw the work of German Jugendstil artists.
DODIN, Charles-Nicolas
(1734-1803)RococoFrench painter (Sèvres)
Doesburg Theo van  (real name . . M. Kiipper)
(1883—1931). Dutch painter, writer on art, poet; leader of the movement *De Stijl and founder of its journal. In 1916 he began to collaborate with the architects J. P. Oud andj. Wils and in 1923 with C. van Eesteren in applying the principles of De Stijl to building and interior decoration; in 1922 he taught at the *Bauhaus, Weimar. In the same year he publicized Dadaism in the Netherlands and under the pseud. 'I. K. Bonset' ed. the Dada periodical Mecatio. In 1930 he ed. a pamphlet entitled Art (lomrcl introducing this term as an alternative to 'abstract art'.
(active 1559-1608)MannerismNetherlandish graphic artist (Antwerp)
DOLCI, Carlo
(1616-1686)BaroqueItalian painter (Florence)
(1581-1641)BaroqueItalian painter (Bologna) DomenichinoDomenico Zampieri called (1581 — 1641). Bolognese painter, pupil and assistant of the Carracci. He worked in Rome, becoming the leading exponent of the Bolognese school there; in 1630 he moved to Naples. His frescoes in Rome included Scourging of St Andrew (1608) and Scenes from the life of St Cecilia (1615—17); the latter marked the peak of classicism in his painting. A tendency towards the Baroque in his work in S. Andrea della Valle, Rome (1624-8), was further developed in his frescoes (1630-41) in Naples cathedral.
(c. 1448-1507)Early RenaissanceItalian painter (Venice)
(?-1369)MedievalItalian sculptor (Siena)
(c. 1400-c. 1447)Early RenaissanceItalian painter (Siena)
(1417-1491)Early RenaissanceItalian painter (Florence)
(c. 1410-1461)Early RenaissanceItalian painter (Florence) Domenico Veneziano (d. 1461). Italian painter of the Florentine school (although he was probably born in Venice: his work shows a stronger sense of colour than that of most of his Florentine contemporaries). He is known to have been in Perugia in 1438 and in Florence between 1439 and 1445. The story in Vasan of D.V.'s murder by Castagno is disproved by the fact that he died after Castagno. D.V.'s work has recently been critically revalued and his influence traced in the painting of Piero della Francesca. D.V.'s surviving masterpiece is the signed ,St Lucy Altarpiece, consisting of the central panel, Madonna and Child with Four Saints, 2 very fine predella panels, The Miracle of St Zenobius and Annunciation, and the panels St John in the Wilderness and St Francis Receiving the Stigmata and The Martyrdom of St Lucy.
Dominguez Oscar
(1906-58). Spanish Surrealist painter and sculptor, living in Paris from 1934. He evolved *decalcomania, his own style of * Automatism in painting; later works introduced technological imagery. His sculptures used *readymades.
Dominicis Gino De(1947-1998).De Dominicis was a controversial and mystifying figure in Italian art. Even the news of his death was suspect, for years earlier he had reported his own demise in the mock conclusion to a biographical essay.His first show was at Rome's Galleria L'Attico in 1969. He was collaborating with Emilio Mazzoli in Modena, where he had his last show in 1998. De Dominicis first appearance in the Venice Biennale in 1972 included a young man with Down's syndrome as an element in an installation; in 1993 he announced that his tempera-and-gold-on-panel paintings could not be considered for Biennale prizes; in 1995 he publicly declined to appear at all. His work has influenced a lot of younger italian artists such as Maurizio Cattelan and Paola Pivi.
DONÁT, János
(1744-1830)RomanticismHungarian painter
(c. 1386-1466)Early RenaissanceItalian sculptor Donatello (c. 1386-1466). Italian sculptor of the Florentine school. Probably no artist so shaped the whole artistic expression of the Italian Renaissance. In himself he found the whole range of that expression, from the lyrical joy of the dancing cherubs, orputti, to the high tragedy and the extremes of religious passion given daring expression in works such as the Magdalen. At the same time, in the bronze David, St Ccoige and the Cattamelata, D, demonstrates that enormous confidence in himself and his destiny which marks the man of the Renaissance.
Little is known about D.'s life. He was trained as a goldsmith and in other crafts, entered the workshop of L. Ghiberti at 17 and was probably taught to carve marble by Nanni di Banco, with whom he collaborated on figures for Or San Michele. His earliest work is probably the marble David. D. is first mentioned in records of artists working on Florence cathedral in 1406 and he executed commissions for the cathedral throughout his life. In this early period he became a friend of Brunelleschi. Critics now believe the traditional account of a trip to Rome taken by D. and Brunelleschi together, but differ on the date. Classical motifs and conceptions become important in the work of both artists from the 1420s. Other of D.'s major works include: the figures for Or San Michele, Florence, which include St George and the plaque St George Slaying the Dragon, important because it creates a scene in depth for the 1st time and the illusion of perspective in carved relief; the figures for the cathedral; the wall tombs executed with Michelozzo, such as the tomb of the Antipope John XXIII; the Crucifix; the carvings on the Siena font, including the scene Herod's Feast; Judith and Holofernes; the important panel in low relief, Ascension; the bronze David, the singing gallery or Cantoria of Florence cathedral, and in Padua, the equestrian statue Gattamelata and the high altar of the Santo; finally the influential and enormously powerful carving in wood, the Magdalen.
D.'s influence is traceable in the work of every Florence artist, notably the painters Masaccio and Castagna, Botticelli to some extent, and, to the greatest degree of all, Michelangelo. The Paduan artists under Mantegna and even the Venetians drew upon the enormous technical and spiritual wealth inherent m his work. Almost all later schools have made use of some aspects of D.'s work, e.g. the putti in the Rococo period, the 'rediscovery' of D.'s values m sculpture by Rodin and the way in which emotional tension is reproduced in much contemporary sculpture.
Donati Enrico
(1909— ). Italian painter. In the 1930s he lived in Paris where he was associated with *Breton and other Surrealists. He settled in the U.S.A. in 1940 and developed an Abstract Expressionist style.
(known 1360-1380)MedievalItalian painter (Venice)
DONCKT, François van der
(1757-1813)NeoclassicismFlemish painter
DONDUCCI, Giovanni Andrea (see MASTELLETTA)
(1575-1675)MannerismItalian painter (Rome)
Dongen Kees van
(1877—1968). Dutch painter who settled in Paris in 1897. He joined the *Fauves in 1905 and became an important member of the group; he also exhibited with Die *Brucke. After World War I he was successful as a society portraitist of wit and sophistication.

DONNER, Georg Raphael
(1693-1741)BaroqueAustrian sculptor
DOOMER, Herman
(c. 1595-1650)BaroqueDutch cabinet-maker (Amsterdam)
Dore Gustave
(1832—83). French graphic artist, painter and sculptor. He visited London for a period, and for a time there was a Dore Gallery there exhibiting his ambitious but now thought unsuccessful oil paintings. D.'s best work results from the unrestrained outpouring of his fantastic imagination and gift for the grotesque; it includes ills for Dante's Divine Comedy and Cervantes's Don Quixote and plates in London, publ. by Blanchard Jerrold.
(1654-1742)BaroqueFrench painter (Italy)
(1616-1665)BaroqueFrench graphic artist (Paris)
DOSIO, Giovanni Antonio
(1533-c. 1609)MannerismItalian architect
DOSSI, Battista
(c. 1490-1548)High RenaissanceItalian painter (Ferrara)
DOSSI, Dosso
(c. 1490-1542)High RenaissanceItalian painter (Ferrara) Dosso Dossi. The name used by Giovanni di Lutero (d. 1542), Italian painter of Ferrara, greatly influenced by Giorgione, Titian and Raphael, but a strongly individual painter. He borrows the theme of Giorgionc's pastoral in his best-known picture, Circe and Her Lovers in a Landscape, but replaces the poetic evocation with a sense of drama and worldly splendour. There is a second, very fine version in the N.G., Washington, in which the lovers have been turned into animals by the enchantress. Both D. and his brother Battista (d. 1548) were employed as painters, designers and craftsmen at the Ferrarese court. D. painted a number of warriors in armour at this time.
DOU, Gerrit
(1613-1675)BaroqueDutch painter (Leiden) Dou Gerrit  or Gerard (1613—75). Dutch painter of portraits and genre, and the founder of the fijnschilders ('fine-painters'). D. was first apprenticed to his father, an engraver on glass, then became a pupil or companion of the young Rembrandt. After Rembrandt left Leyden, 1631, I), became the city's leading painter, ("lose to Rembrandt's style is A Hermit. D.'s highly finished scenes, often of dramatically lit interiors with figures, e.g. 1'he Young Mother, were very popular and had a lasting influence even outside Holland. Among D.'s pupils were F. van Miens the Elder, G. Metsu and G. Schalcken.
Doucet Jacques
(1924 – 1994). French surrealist painter
(1594-1660)BaroqueFlemish painter
Douglas Aaron
(1899-1979). U.S. painter and teacher, one of the leaders of the 'Negro Renaissance' period who, from the mid-1920s, defined a modern, black approach to art, e.g. Aspiration (1936).
(c. 1490-c. 1543)Northern RenaissanceNetherlandish sculptor (Kalkar)
DOWERMANN, Heinrich (see DOUVERMAN, Hendrick)
(c. 1490-c. 1543)Northern RenaissanceNetherlandish sculptor (Kalkar)
DOYEN, Gabriel-François
(1726-1806)BaroqueFrench painter
DRAKE, Johann Friedrich
(1805-1882)RomanticismGerman sculptor
DREVET, Pierre
(1663-1738)BaroqueFrench graphic artist (Paris)
Driben Peter. Pin -Up Art
(1752-1817)BaroqueFrench painter (Paris)
DROOCHSLOOT, Joost Cornelisz.
(1586-1666)BaroqueDutch painter (Utrecht)
DROST, Willem
(1633-1659)BaroqueDutch painter (Amsterdam)
DROUAIS, François-Hubert
(1727-1775)BaroqueFrench painter
DROUAIS, Jean-Germain
(1763-1788)NeoclassicismFrench painter
DUBBELS, Hendrik Jakobsz.
(1621-1707)BaroqueDutch painter (Amsterdam)
Dubois Ambroise
(1543-1614) Flemish born. Fontainebleau school
(1829-1905)RealismFrench sculptor (Paris)
(1737-1799)RococoFrench cabinet-maker (Paris)
Du Bois Guy Pene
(1884-1958) The Ashcan School.
DUBREUIL, Toussaint
(c. 1561-1602)MannerismFrench painter (Fontainebleau) Dubreuil Toussaint(b Paris, 1561; d Paris, 22 Nov 1602). French painter and draughtsman. He was a pupil at Fontainebleau of Ruggiero de Ruggieri (d after 1597) and was also trained by Martin Freminet’s father Mederic Freminet, a rather mediocre painter in Paris. Dubreuil became Premier Peintre to Henry IV and is usually identified as a member of the so-called second Fontainebleau school, together with Ambroise Dubois and Martin Freminet. These artists were employed by the king to decorate the royal palaces, their functions being similar to those of Rosso Fiorentino and Primaticcio earlier at Fontainebleau under Francis I. Dubreuil’s death meant that many of the projects in which he was involved had to be completed by assistants. Despite this and the fact that the majority of his finished work has since been lost, he is considered an important link between the Mannerism of Primaticcio and the classicism of Nicolas Poussin and his contemporaries in the following century.
Dubuffet Jean
(1901—85). French painter and print maker. His works, imbued with the spirit of l'Art Brut, created an irrational, primitive world, and varied textural surfaces produced by experimenting with sand, cement, tar, lacquer, etc., gave to his work a supra-pictorial existence. In 1954 he exhibited sculptures which he called Little Statues of Precarious Life, made from ephemeral and cast-off materials such as newspaper, worn-out sponge and string. In the late 1960s D. became increasingly occupied with sculpture.
DUCA, Jacopo del
(c. 1520-1604)MannerismItalian sculptor (Sicily)
DUCCIO di Buoninsegna
(c. 1255-1319)MedievalItalian painter (Siena) Duccio di Buonisegna(c. 1260— 1319). Italian painter, the creator of the Sienese school as Giotto was that of the Florentine school. D.'s break with the conventions of Byzantine painting was far less revolutionary than Giotto's, and the great success with which he filled many of the old forms with the new spirit, combined with his superlative colour sense, Ins feeling for composition, and the dramatic rendering of familiar religious scenes, meant that those Sienese painters who followed him were often content to remain detached from the search for more natural forms of representation which was being pursued in Florence and elsewhere.
The documents of D.'s life tell of his frequent clashes with the government of his city. Despite this he was trusted with important commissions and rose to a position of power, wealth and influence. It may have been during a period of exile from Siena that he executed the earliest picture attributed to him. Most critics now agree that the famous Rucellai Madonna is the painting D. was commissioned to paint for the Chapter of Sta Maria Novella m 1285. While the figure of the Madonna remains a type of Byzantine art, the graceful angels and the Child arc alive with the new spirit.
The work which displays every quality of D.'s greatness is unquestionably the Maestd which D. was commissioned to paint in 1308 and which, according to tradition, was carried to the cathedral with rejoicing in 1311. Apart from the Maesta itself, there are some 44 panels on the front and back of the altarpiece representing scenes from the Bible and the lives of the saints; 10 of these panels are now separated. Among these are the outstanding Calling of the Apostles Peter and Andrew and Annunciation.
DUCCIO, Agostino di
(1418-1481)Early RenaissanceItalian sculptor (Rimini)
Duchamp Marcel (1887-1968). French painter, brother of Jacques Villon and Raymond Duchamp-Villon. He studied part-time at the Academic Julian, Paris, while working as a librarian at the Bibhotheque Ste-Genevieve. He abandoned painting in the 1920s but contributed to Surrealist exhibitions in 1938 and 1947. His 1st paintings (191 1-12), influenced by the Cubists, analysed the movement of form in space. Nude Descending a Staircase No. 1 (1911) and No. (1912) inspired, like contemporary Futurist painting, by chronophotography, attempted to create an autonomous equivalent to the moving figure, and he originally intended that the construction The Bride stripped bare by her Bachelors, even should actually move. The 2nd version of the Nude Descending was rejected from a 1912 Cubist exhibition and became the most notorious exhibit at the famous *Armory Show (1913). The exhibition of his * readymades, e.g. Bicycle Wheel (1913), Bottle Rack (1914), In Advance of the Broken Arm (1915), Comb (1916), Fountain (1917), etc. foreshadowed the polemical 'anti-art' character of Dada. He was, with Picabia, the leader of the New York Dada and Surrealist movement — he moved permanently to the U.S.A. in 1913. D. exerted the greatest influence on the post-Abstract Expressionist generation of U.S. artists like *Rauschenberg and *Johns and determined to a large extent, and for a long period, the course of the most visible U.S. art. He remained throughout his life a legendary figure. The Bride stripped bare by her Bachelors, even occupied him between 191 5 and 1923. From 1946 to 1966, when he was supposed to have stopped making art and seemed interested only in chess, he was secretly engaged in Etant donnes: 1. La Chute d'eau/ 2. Le d'eclairage, a 3-dimensional mixed-media assemblage which is viewed through two peepholes in an old Spanish wooden door. The scene revealed is of a sun-lit landscape with a waterfall and in the foreground the realistic form of a female nude. This work is probably related to The Bride ... It is perhaps the most mysterious and certainly the most intriguing work of art in the 20th .
Duchamp-Villon Raymond
(1876—1918). French sculptor, brother of Gaston (known as Jacques Villon) and Marcel Duchamp. He took up sculpture in 1 898 after studying medicine and was first influenced by Rodin. In 1910 he joined the Cubists. Cubist sculpture reached its apogee in his Horse (1914), a masterly synthesis of organic and mechanical elements.
(1756-1788)RococoFrench painter
DUCK, Jacob
(c. 1600-after 1660)BaroqueDutch painter (Utrecht)
DUCQ, Joseph-François
(1762-1829)NeoclassicismBelgian painter
Dufy Raoul
(1877—1953). French painter, born in Le Havre, where he met *Braque and Friesz. He studied at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts, Paris. Under *Matisse's influence he produced Fauve paintings around 1905 with strong colour areas and an intermittent heavy black contour — e.g. La Plage de Ste-Adresse (1904). Cubism and the influence of Cezanne prompted a monumental sense of form as in Les Trois Baignenses (1919), but after 1920 D.'s paintings of racecourses, regattas and casinos were conceived, like his remarkable textiles, as a tapestry of clear colours. His brother Jean (1888—1964) was also a painter, mainly in watercolour.
DUGHET, Gaspard
(1615-1675)BaroqueFrench painter (Rome)
(1622-1678)BaroqueDutch painter (Rome) Dujardin Karel (1622-78). Dutch painter of Italianate landscapes with animals or figures, genre pieces and portraits. He was a pupil of N. Berchem and twice visited Italy.
Dulac Edmund
(1882-1953). French-born British ill., watercolour painter, portraitist and designer. Some of the best known of his fantastic, intricate ills are the watercolours for The Arabian Nights, The Rubaiyat of Omar Khayyam, Sinbad the Sailor, The Tempest and many books of fairy-tales.
(1574-1645)BaroqueFrench painter (Paris)
(c. 1540 - after 1600)MannerismFrench painter
DUMONT, François
(c. 1687-1726)BaroqueFrench sculptor
DUMONT, Augustin-Alexandre
(1801-1884)RomanticismFrench sculptor
DUMONT, François
(1751-1831)RococoFrench miniaturist
Dunand Jean
(b Lancy, 20 May 1877; d Paris, 7 June 1947). French sculptor, metalworker, painter and designer, of Swiss birth. He trained as a sculptor from 1891 to 1896 at the Ecole des Arts Industriels in Geneva and in 1897 was awarded a scholarship by the city of Geneva that enabled him to continue his studies in Paris, where Jean Dampt, a sculptor from Burgundy, introduced him to the idea of producing designs for interior decoration and furnishing. Dunand worked on the winged horses on the bridge of Alexandre III in Paris (in situ), while simultaneously continuing his research into the use of metal in the decorative arts. His first pieces of dinanderie (decorative brassware) were exhibited at the Salon de la Société Nationale des Beaux-Arts of 1904 in Paris. In 1906 he gave up sculpture in order to devote his time to making dinanderie and later to lacquering. His first vases (e.g. ‘Wisteria’ vase, gilt brass with cloisonné enamels, 1912) reflect Art Nouveau forms, but he quickly adopted the geometric forms of Art Deco in his work. In 1912 the Japanese artist Seizo Sugawara asked him to solve a problem concerning dinanderie, and in exchange he was given instruction in lacquering. From then on he produced vases, folding screens, doors and other furniture (e.g. Geometric Decor, black and red lacquered screen). Around 1925 he started to use egg shell on lacquer. Different effects were produced by varying the size of the pieces and by using the inside or the outside of the shell. He used this technique for both portraits and Cubist compositions (e.g. tray; Geneva, Mus. A. & Hist.). He worked closely with contemporary artists and designers, especially the furniture designer Jacques-Emile Ruhlmann and the couturiers Madeleine Vionnet and Paul Poiret. His jewellery designs demonstrate a preference for pure, geometric forms, with regular black and red lacquer dots on the metal surface.
Dupas Jean
(1882-1964, French Art Deco Designer)
DUPÉRAC, Etienne
(c. 1525-1601)BaroqueFrench graphic artist (Rome)
DUPLESSIS, Joseph-Siffred
(1725-1802)RococoFrench painter (Paris)
DUPRÉ, Giovanni
(1817-1882)RomanticismItalian sculptor (Florence)
DUPRÉ, Jules
(1811-1889)RealismFrench painter (Barbizon) Dupre Jules (1811-89). French landscape painter, one of the leading members of the *Barbizon school. He visited Britain in 1831 and was greatly impressed by Constable, though his own work gave a more romanticized and introspective interpretation of nature.
DUPUIS, Nicolas-Gabriel
(c. 1698-1771)BaroqueFrench sculptor (Paris)
DUPUYS, Pierre
(1610-1682)BaroqueFrench painter
(1597-1643)BaroqueFlemish sculptor (Rome) Duquesnoy Francois (1 594-1643) called 'Il Fiammingo'. Flemish sculptor who settled in Rome. His major works are the marble statues St Andrew and St Susanna. In his own time he was renowned for his *putti. He represented the classical tradition in the age of Bernini's Baroque.
DURAND, Asher Brown
(1796-1886)RomanticismAmerican painter Durand AsherBrown (1796-1886). U.S. landscape painter, founder, with T. Cole, of the *Hudson River school. He abandoned a successful career as an engraver to become a painter, first of portraits and biblical and anecdotal subjects, later of quiet, Romantic landscapes.
(active 1519-1576)High RenaissanceItalian potter (Urbino)
DÜRER, Albrecht
(1471-1528)Northern RenaissanceGerman painter Durer Albrecht (1471 —1528). German painter, engraver, designer of woodcuts and major art theorist. D. was born in Nuremberg and trained 1 st under his father, a goldsmith. He was apprenticed (1486-90) to M. Wolgemut, in whose workshop he became familiar with the best work of contemporary German artists and with the recent technical advances in engraving and drawing for woodcuts. D. soon began to provide ills himself for his godfather, the printer A. Koberger. In 1490 he went on the 1st journeys that were so to affect his art, visiting Colmar, Basel and Strassburg. He was in Nuremberg for his marriage in 1496, but left m the autumn of that year for Italy. On this visit and during the longer stay of 1505-7, D. made a profound study of Italian painting at the very moment when it was being changed by the revolutionary ideas of Leonardo da Vinci and others. He also studied the whole intellectual background of the Italian Renaissance, the writings of the humanists and, in particular, Mantegna's attempts to re-create in engravings and paintings the classical canon of art. D. was thus able to make his own personal synthesis of the arts of the north and south, a synthesis which was to have immense importance to European art. From 1495, when D. established his workshop in Nuremberg, his success and reputation increased rapidly. Until 1499 he was engaged chiefly on engravings and designs for his books of woodcuts. Comparatively easy to reproduce in large numbers and to transport, this work made him more widely known than any but the almost legendary Italians. He was encouraged by an enthusiastic patron, the Elector of Saxony, and he became the friend of many of the chief figures of the Reformation. Though he never broke with Catholicism, D. was deeply involved in the religious controversy until his death. In 1512 he was made court painter to the Emperor Maximilian. This honour was confirmed by Charles V, and when D. visited the Netherlands in 1520 he was widely feted. In his last years he planned and partly composed a thesis on the theoretical basis of the arts.
To mention only his greatest works: The Madonna of the Rose Garlands and The Adoration of the Trinity were painted almost in competition with the Italians. His portraits are of great interest, particularly the series of self-portraits: that of 1493, of 1498, of 1500 and of 1522. Probably his major work in oils is the late Four Apostles. However, D.'s greatest single achievement and one which established him as supreme among graphic artists is his book of woodcuts, The Apocalypse (1498). Other series of woodcuts are: The Great Passion, 'The Life of the Virgin and The Lesser Passion. Single woodcuts of outstanding quality are: The Last Supper and The Men's Bath House. Of his engravings the series The Engraved Passion, and the single plates: Adam and Eve, Melancholia, Knight, Death and the Devil, The Prodigal Son, St Jerome in his Study and 57 Eustace are the finest in quality. D.'s smallest sketches are often masterpieces of draughtsmanship and feeling, e.g. Crowned Death on a Thin Horse, charcoal. His water-colours of places (often scenes done on his travels), people, animals and plants are evidence of his desire to record the world around him with the greatest precision, yet with no surrender of the passion of an artist before the objectivity of the scientist.

DURET, Francisque-Joseph
(1804-1865)RomanticismFrench sculptor
DUSART, Cornelis
(1660-1704)BaroqueDutch painter (Haarlem)
(1808-1866)RomanticismFrench sculptor

(c. 1485-c. 1561)High RenaissanceFrench graphic artist
DUVIVIER, Jan Bernard
(1762-1837)NeoclassicismFlemish painter
DUYSTER, Willem Cornelisz.
(1599-1635)BaroqueDutch painter (Amsterdam)
DYCE, William
(1806-1864)RomanticismScottish painter Dyce William (1806-64). Scottish painter. Early sympathy with the *Nazarenes encountered by him in Rome (1827) made him welcome the *Pre-Raphaelites. Though his frescoes in the House of Lords and elsewhere lack inspiration,
his Pegwell Bay is an admirable piece of mid-19th-c. Realism.
DYCK, Sir Anthony van

(1599-1641)BaroqueFlemish painter Dyck Anthony van (1599-1641). Flemish painter chiefly famous for portraits of the English aristocracy, though he also painted a number of large religious, allegorical and mythological subjects. D. was trained in Antwerp by H. van Balen and became the chief assistant of Rubens. He was in Britain for some months in 1620—, then embarked on a prolonged tour of Italy, where he spent periods at Venice, Genoa and Rome, executing portraits and commissions for churches. He painted for a further period in Antwerp before he settled in Britain in 1631 as court painter. Typical of his rich but refined and elegant portrait style, which flattered almost all his sitters with a look of distinction and intelligence, are Philippe le Roy, Frans Snyders, Charles I and the more ambitious Charles I in Hunting Dress. This style set a pattern, especially for British portrait painters, for at least 200 years. Larger works include The Crucifixion of St Peter, Samson and Delilah, Rinaldo and Armida and Amarillis and Mirtille.


The Metropolitan Museum of Art Has Great Influence on Art's History
By Mike Selvon

When making plans to visit New York City, whether for a family vacation or for a business trip, it is difficult not to run across plenty of information and promotions about the Metropolitan Museum of Art. This world-class museum is one of the largest anywhere, as well as being one of the best known, and it is where some of the most wonderful collections of fine art anywhere in the world are housed.

The collections that are housed in this New York museum are comprised of more than two million works of amazing art. This stunning supply of art treasures spans more than 5,000 years of world history and culture that comes from every corner the globe. The "Met," as it is popularly called, especially by locals, was founded in 1870 and it is located along the eastern edge of New York City's Central Park, situated on Fifth Avenue. Each year it receives millions of visitors.

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