(1844-1916) U.S. painter and photographer. Trained as a painter in Paris am) influenced by Manet, E. became one of the major American Kcahsts, e.g. his studies of surgeons operating. His paintings include brilliantly composed sculling pictures, e.g. The Biglen Brothers Turning the Slake. E. revolutionized U.S. art teaching, insisting on drawing from the nude and sound anatomical knowledge. As a photographer he continued Muybndge's experiments in the photography of motion, improving on them by using I camera to produce a series of images on a single plate rather than a number of cameras producing single images. E.'s composite plates inspired Duchamp's famous painting Nude Descending a Staircase.
(1751-1801) Rococo American painter
(1743-1822) Rococo English graphic artist (London)
EASTLAKE, Charles Lock
(1793-1865) British painter, writer on art and administrator. As keeper (1843—7) and Ist director (1855—65) of the N.C., London, he devoted energy, scholarship and taste to building up one of the greatest colls of Italian art, particularly the work of the so-called 'primitives'. E.'s early landscapes deserve attention.
EBERLEIN, Johann Friedrich
(1695-1749) Rococo German sculptor (Meissen)
ECKERSBERG, Christoffer Wilhelm
(1783-1853) Neoclassicism Danish painter
(1865-1902) German designer, illustrator and painter. He trained as a businessman before entering the Kunst- und Gewerbeschule in Hamburg. He studied at the Kunst- und Gewerbeschule in Nuremberg and from 1885 attended the Akademie der Bildenden Künste in Munich. His early paintings are naturalistic landscapes but around 1890 he shifted towards Symbolism (e.g. the Four Ages of Life, 1893–4; untraced). In 1894 he decided to devote himself to the decorative arts. Encouraged by Justus Brinckmann, a collector and museum director, and Friedrich Deneken (later Director of the Kaiser Wilhelm Museum, Krefeld), Eckmann studied the Japanese woodcut collection at the Museum für Kunst und Gewerbe, Hamburg. Using traditional Japanese techniques, he began producing his own woodcut designs in 1895. Three Swans on Dark Water (1895; Hamburg, Mus. Kst & Gew.) reflects a general preoccupation with late 19th-century music, art and literature with swans as symbolic images, and they were a frequent motif in many of his subsequent works. Eckmann’s woodcuts, as well as ornamental borders, vignettes, bookplates and other graphic designs, were illustrated in such periodicals as Deutsche Kunst und Dekoration, Jugend and Pan. In 1899–1900 he collaborated with Karl Klingspor at Rudhardsche Schriftgiesserei, Offenbach, to develop a new typeface named Eckmann.
(1968- ) Augsburg, Germany. Lives and works in Berlin.
EDINGEN VAN AELST, Pieter van
(1450-1531) Northern Renaissance Flemish tapestry weaver (Brussels)
EECKHOUT, Gerbrand van den
(1621-1674) Baroque Dutch painter (Amsterdam)
EERTVELT, Andries van
(1590-1652) Baroque Flemish painter
EGERI, Carl von
(1510-1562) High Renaissance Swiss glass painter (Zurich)
(1790-1848) Japan Artist
(1756-1829) Japan Artist
(1790-1799) Japan Artist
(1790-1823) Japan Artist
(1543-1590) Japan Artist
(1787-1867) Japan Artist
(1882-1949) Russian-Ukrainian painter and designer. Cubo-Futurist, Suprematist, Constructivist.
El GRECO see GRECO, El 'The Greek'. Domenikos Theotokopoulos
(1541-1614) Mannerism Spanish painter born in Crete. G. was trained as a painter of icons in the Byzantine tradition. About 1 s6o lie went to Venice (Crete was a Venetian colony) and became a pupil of Titian, then to Rome with an introduction to Cardinal Farnese from Giulio Clovio, of whom he painted a portrait. He attracted some attention and had pupils but c. 1570 moved to Toledo, where he lived until his death.
There are 3 main phases in his development. The pictures from the 1st phase (1570—80) show Venetian influence and especially Titian's: line drawing disappears, the use of colour is unlimited and the purely pictorial dominates (compare Titian's Colgolha with G.'s). G.'s dramatic use of light and shade and his portrait style indicate Tintoretto's influence-as well as that of Veronese, Bassano and perhaps Correggio. The Holy Trinity (1577-8) belongs to this period.
The 2nd phase (1580-1604) combines some Byzantine features (especially plastic forms) with a growing sense of rhythm and movement; it includes The Martyrdom of St Maurice (1580), commissioned by Philip II in 1580 but not accepted, and Colgotha (1590). The Burial of Count Orgaz (1586), a legendary theme, shows St Augustine and St Stephen lowering the body into the grave. The canvas is filled with figures, some of them portraits, and contrasts yet unifies the human and heavenly worlds, the austerity and solemnity of the lower part of the painting and the radiance of the Holy Ghost in the upper. The eye is led upwards to the figure of Christ, who is beseeched by John the Baptist to receive the count's soul. This spiritual exaltation is typical of G.; another example is The Despoiling of Christ (1583). The best of the portraits painted in this period is the Cardinal Don Fernando Nino de Cuevara (1598).
From about 1590 G. concentrated increasingly on portraying inner beauty and in the last phase achieved complete inward expression. From 1604 the rhythm and the simplicity of form and colour increase. The combination of Byzantine influence with rhythm, movement, intensity of expression obtained through elongation and distortion of form, use of light and unusual colour (the blues and lemons), convey the exaltation and radiance of the Holy Ghost. The later paintings include the Vision of St John the Divine (1610—14) and the View of Toledo (1608). The latter is no mere landscape: it is a vision in which nature has overcome man.
Works include: St Martin and the Beggar (1597—9): Resurrection of Chirist (1597—1604); Assumption of the Virgin Mary (1608—13); and Adoration of the Shepherds (1612-14).
ELIAERTS, Jan Frans
(1761-1848) Rococo Belgian painter (Antwerp)
ELIAS, Nicolaes (see PICKENOY, Nicolaes Eliasz.)
(1588-1654/56) Baroque Dutch painter (Amsterdam)
ELINGA, Pieter Janssens
(1623-before 1682) Baroque Dutch painter (Amsterdam)
ELSEVIER, Louys Aernoutsz
(1618-1675) Baroque Dutch painter (Delft)
(1578-1610) Mannerism German painter (Rome)
Pin -Up Art.
EMBRIACHI, Baldassare degli
(active 1390-1409) Medieval Italian sculptor
(1793-1854) Romanticism Austrian painter
(1468-1533) Northern Renaissance Netherlandish painter (Leiden)
(1796-1871) Romanticism Austrian painter (Vienna)
(1749-1803) Japan Artist
ENRICO FIAMMINGO (see SOMER, Hendrick van)
(1615-1685) Baroque Dutch painter (Naples)
(1860-1949) Belgian painter and engraver, born in Ostend of an British father and a Flemish mother. E. studied at the Brussels Academy, but otherwise seldom left Ostend. Neglected by all but a few writers such as Verhaeren and Maeterlinck, E. was awarded later recognition in the 1920s and created a baron in 1930. Today he is considered a major pioneer of both Expressionism and Abstract Expressionism. E. began by painting sombre interiors, portraits, landscapes and seascapes (The Rower) as well as a few superb still-life studies. About 1883 his palette changed to lighter, brilliantly contrasted colours. This very Flemish choice of colour can first be seen in a variation in a self-portrait by Rubens, Portrait of the Artist in a Flowered Hat. Of E.'s engravings of this period, one of the greatest is The Cathedral (1886). The macabre carnival paintings of fighting skeletons and masked revellers, with the echoes of the Dance of Death, Bosch, Bruegel the Elder, ("allot, Goya and Magnasco, now made their appearance. The most celebrated of these, Christ's Llntry into Brussels, was rejected in 1889 after a scandal by Les XX, an avant-garde group which E. had helped to found. E. continued to paint until 1939; his later work is less fierce in character, e.g. Coup de lumiere (1935).
(1880—1959) U.S.-born portrait and monumental sculptor who settled in London in 1905. His tame and notoriety were established with the 1 8 figures in semi-relief carved for the British Medical Association Building in the Strand. Many sculptures of his early and middle period were rejected by the general public as ugly and attacked by the critics either for the deliberate distortion of the human figure or on formal grounds: the Risen Christ (1919) showed Christ as a Jew, and the influence of primitive art is apparent in the Esse Homo (1914—5) and the alabaster Adam (1938—9), a barbaric and energy-charged figure. The 3 major religious commissions of E.'s last years, the Madonna and Child (1951—2), the Christ in Majesty (1953-7) and the St Michael and the Devil (1955—7) were more traditional compositions. His bronze portrait heads of children and of great contemporaries are notable.
Pin -Up Art.
ERCOLE de' Roberti
(1455/6-1496) Italian painter and draughtsman. He was, together with Cosimo Tura and Francesco del Cossa, one of the most important painters working in Ferrara and Bologna in the 15th century. Although many of his works have been destroyed, those that survive show that he raised the depiction of human emotion and narrative drama to remarkable heights. From 1486 he worked as court painter to Ercole I d’Este, Duke of Ferrara.
(1460/79-1540) Northern Renaissance German sculptor (Augsburg)
(active 1469-1522) Northern Renaissance German sculptor (Ulm)
ERLACH, Johann Bernhard Fischer von
(1656-1723) Austrian architect. Johann Bernhard Fischer von Erlach (the honorific was granted by the emperor in 1696 when Fischer was ennobled) was the son of Johann Baptist Fischer, a sculptor and decorator active in Graz, near the Austrian border with Italy. Johann Bernhand became the last great architect of the Renaissance and Baroque periods, occupying a central role in the buildings of the imperial court circle in Vienna. His eclectic approach was adopted as the official style of the Habsburg court. His second son, Joseph Emanuel Fischer von Erlach, was trained by his father as his successor and completed his unfinished work after his death.
(1891-1976) German painter who first studied philosophy at Bonn (1909—14). Untrained as an artist, he visited Paris in 1913 and met Маске, Delannay and — more significantly — Apollinaire and Arp. After the war he founded the Cologne *Dada group in 1919. By this time he had seen the work of De Chinco,Klee, Picasso and the Zurich Dadaists, and his paintings combined found objects (pieces of wood, wallpaper, etc.) with painted objects into a fantasy imagery whose disturbing ambiguity was emphasized by the titles — The Little Lear Cland that says Tic Tac (1920). His one-man exhibition in Paris in 1920 was acclaimed by the *Surrealists. His invention of 'frottage' paralleled the automatic writing of *Breton and Eluard in eliminating the conscious creative role of the artist, e.g. Histoire Naturelle (publ. Paris 1926).
The painting and sculpture which now make him regarded as one of the major influential figures of international Surrealism depend either on the irrational juxtaposition of unrelated elements, e.g. O/ this Men shall know Nothing (1923) or on a more imaginative nightmare improvisation of organic forms (The Horde, 1927). E. spent the war years in the U.S.A., later settling in France. In 1961 he publ. An Informal Life of Max Ernst.
ERTE (d'Erte) Romain de Tirtoff (pseudonym Erté, a French pronunciation of initials R.T.)
(1892-1990) Russian born, French artist and designer. Tirtoff was born as Roman Petrov de Tyrtov (Роман Петрович Тыртов) in St. Petersburg, Russian Empire in a very distinguished family with roots traced back to 1548. His father Pyotr Ivanovich de Tyrtov was a Fleet Admiral. In 1910-1912 Romain moved to Paris to pursue a career as a designer. This decision was made over strong objections of his father, who wanted Romain to continue a family tradition and to become a naval officer. Romain assumed the pseudonym to avoid disgracing the family. In 1915 he got his first significant contract with Harper's Bazaar magazine, and he went on to an illustrious career that included designing costumes and stage sets.
Erté is perhaps most famous for his elegant fashion designs which capture the art deco period in which he worked. His delicate figures and sophisticated, glamorous designs are instantly recognizable, and his ideas and art influence fashion into the 21st century. His costumes and sets were featured in the Ziegfeld Follies of 1923, many productions of the Folies Bergère, and George White's Scandals. In 1925, Louis B. Mayer brought him to Hollywood to design sets and costumes for a film called Paris. There were many script problems so Erte was given other assignments to keep him busy. He designed for such films as Ben-Hur, The Mystic, Time, the Comedian, Dance Madness and La bohème.
By far his best known image is Symphony in Black, depicting a tall, slender woman draped in black holding a thin black dog. The influential image has been reproduced and copied countless times.
Erté continued working throughout his life designing revues, ballets and operas. He had a major rejuvenation and much lauded interest in his career during the 1960s with the art deco revival. He branched out into the realm of limited edition prints, bronzes and art to wear. Museums around the world purchased dozens of his paintings for their collections.
A sizeable collection of work by Erté can be found at Museum 1999 in Tokyo.
ES, Jacob van
(1596-1666) Baroque Flemish painter (Antwerp)
ESCALANTE, Juan Antonio Frias y
(1633-1670) Baroque Spanish painter (Madrid)
ESCHER, M.C.Maurits Cornelis Escher
(1898-1972) Dutch graphic artist. He is known for his often mathematically inspired woodcuts, lithographs and mezzotints. These feature impossible constructions, explorations of infinity, architecture and tessellations.
ESPINOSA, Juan Bautista de
(1590-1641) Baroque Spanish painter
ESPINOSA, Juan de
(1628-1659) Baroque Spanish painter (Madrid)
ESQUIVEL Y SUÁREZ DE URBINA, Antonio Maria
(1806-1857) Neoclassicism Spanish painter
(1627-1687) Baroque Dutch painter (Amsterdam)
(1932- ) is an American painter who is best known for his photorealistic paintings. The paintings generally consist of reflective, clean, and inanimate city and geometric landscapes. He is regarded as one of the founders of the international photo-realist movement of the late 1960s, with painters such as Ralph Goings, Chuck Close, and Duane Hanson. At an early age, Richard's family moved to Chicago. As a young adult, Richard studied fine arts at The School of the Art Institute of Chicago. He frequently studied the works of realist painters such as Edgar Degas, Edward Hopper, and Thomas Eakins, who are strongly represented in the Art Institute's collection. Richard moved to New York City in 1956, after he had completed his course of studies, and worked for the next ten years as a graphic artist for various magazine publishers and advertising agencies in New York and Spain. During this period, he painted in his spare time. By 1966, he had the financial resources to devote himself full-time to painting. Most of Richard's paintings from the early 1960s are of city dwellers engaged in everyday activities. Beginning around 1967, Richard began to paint storefronts and buildings with glass windows, and more importantly, the reflected images shown on these windows. The paintings were based on color photographs he would take, which trapped the evanescent nature of the reflections, which would change in part with the lighting and the time of day. While some amount of alteration was done for the sake of aesthetic composition, it was important to Richard that the central and the main reflected objects be recognizable, but also that the evanescent quality of the reflections be retained. Richard had his first of many one-man shows in 1968, at the Allan Stone Gallery. His works have also been exhibited at the Metropolitan Museum of Art, the Whitney Museum, and the Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum. In 1971, Richard was granted a National Council for the Arts fellowship.
ESTEVE Y MARQUES, Agustín
(1753-1820) Neoclassicism Spanish painter (Madrid)
(1808-1888) Romanticism French sculptor
(1787-1849) British painter best remembered for his studies of the nude, e.g. The Bather.
EVERDINGEN, Allaert van
(1621-1675) Baroque Dutch painter
EVERDINGEN, Caesar van
(1617-1678) Baroque Dutch painter
(1616-1671) Baroque Dutch painter (Middelburg)
(active 1540-1574) Mannerism Flemish painter (England)
(6th century B.C.) Greek potter and famous vase painter in the *black figure style whose masterpiece is an amphora now in the Vatican showing Achilles and Ajax.
EYCK, Barthélemy d'
(active 1444-1469) Northern Renaissance Netherlandish painter, active in France. The son of Ydria Exters ‘d’Allemagne’ (d 1460) and the stepson of Pierre du Billant, he is first recorded on 19 February 1444 as a witness with Enguerrand Quarton in Aix-en-Provence and described as ‘magister Bartolomeus de Ayck pictor’, inhabitant of Aix. From c. 1447 he was ‘peintre et varlet de chambre’ at the court of Rene I, King of Naples (reg 1438–42) and Duke of Anjou (reg 1434–80). Between 1447 and 1449 Barthelemy worked at Rene’s chateau of Tarascon (Bouches-du-Rhone) in a room close to the Duke’s own apartments. There his activities may have included supervising fellow artists, providing designs and perhaps painting the ceiling decoration of the Royal Apartments in the east wing of the chateau (de Merindol). In 1451 Barthélemy travelled in the Duke’s entourage to Guyenne, and in 1456 he was at Angers, which he visited on a number of other occasions. Existing accounts show that Barthelemy was responsible for paying painters and illuminators, purchasing materials for manuscripts and obtaining gold to be made into jewellery for Rene’s second wife, Joanna of Laval. The last document relating to Barthelemy is dated 26 December 1469, when he received wages for himself, three servants and three horses. The high esteem in which he was held may be deduced from Jean Pelerin’s third edition of his treatise De artificiali perspectiva (Toul, 1521), which ends with a French poem mentioning a ‘Berthelemi’ together with Jean Fouquet, Jean Poyet and Coppin Delf.
EYCK, Gaspard van
(1613-1673) Baroque Flemish painter
EYCK, Hubert van
(?-1426) Northern Renaissance Flemish painter. A Magister Hubertus, pictor was paid in 1409 for panels for the church of Onze Lieve Vrouwe, Tongeren, and a Master Hubert painted a panel bequeathed by Jan de Visch van der Capelle to his daughter, a Benedictine nun near Grevelingen, in 1413; considering the rarity of this given name among painters of the time, the artist may well have been Hubert van Eyck. The designation of Hubert as ‘Master’, his absence from guild records, the childlessness revealed in his heirs’ living outside Ghent and his sister’s burial beside him, all suggest that he was in minor orders, perhaps attached to the abbey church of St Bavo, Ghent (Dhanens, 1980). He must have settled in Ghent by c. 1420 and shortly afterwards begun his only surviving documented work, the retable with the Adoration of the Lamb or Ghent Altarpiece, which was commissioned for St Bavo’s by Jodocus Vijd (d 1439) and his wife Elisabeth Borluut (d 1443); to judge from its advanced state at the time of Hubert’s death it must have been designed c. 1423. The following year Hubert made two designs for a picture for the town magistrates of Ghent, some of whom visited his shop in 1425. He was probably commissioned to paint the retable with a painted or carved figure of St Anthony (untraced) for the altar in the church of the Saviour, Ghent, which Robbrecht Portier and his wife endowed on 9 March 1426. This can hardly have been started, however, since the retable for St Bavo’s must have occupied most of his time until his death six months later. The painter was buried in St Bavo’s before the altar on which the retable was to stand, a sign of the patrons’ esteem. The tombstone is still in the cathedral museum, bereft of the brass plaque with its inscription declaring that Hubert’s painting had won him fame and the highest honour.
EYCK, Jan van
(before 1395-1441) Northern Renaissance Netherlands painter. The great altarpiece of the cathedral of St Bavon, Ghent (The Adoration of the Lamb), bears an inscription stating that the work was begun by Hubert van Eyck and completed by Jan. This inscription has been a stumbling-block to scholars ever since. A number of attempts have been made to separate the work of the 2 brothers, but none has been universally accepted. Hubert's name appears only on the Ghent altarpiece, while signed and dated works by Jan are numerous.
Despite these difficulties of attribution, Jan emerges as unquestionably the greatest artist of the early Netherlands school. He was probably born at Maaseyck near Maastricht. From 1422 to 1424 he was in the service of John of Bavaria, Count of Holland. On the count's death he joined the court of Duke Philip the Good of Burgundy at Lille, acting as his envoy on missions to Spain (1426) and to Portugal (1428). From 1430 he lived at Bruges. Thereafter there is evidence of his increasing wealth and importance as a court painter, diplomat and city official of Bruges.
The earliest works attributed to Jan are the miniatures identified in 1902 as the Turin-Milan Book of Hours.
The Eycks' clarity and realism were revered and sometimes imitated, but they proved too difficult for most painters to follow and there was an inevitable reaction against such work. Although the tradition that one or other of the brothers was the inventor of oil paint has been disproved, their mastery of the technique and the improvements they introduced undoubtedly changed the whole nature of the medium. Jan's pupil, Petrus Christus, may have been responsible for teaching the secrets of the technique to Antonello da Messma and the Italians.
Jan executed a number of large commissions for donors who presented them to churches. Among these are The Virgin of Chancellor Rolin, Virgin and Child and the Canon van der Paele, Virgin and Child with Saints and a Carthusian. Similar subjects are 1'he Virgin and Child in a Church, The Annunciation and the Virgin and Child, a triptych. Among his portraits are the early Tymotheos, The Painter's wife, Margaret, Man in a Red Turban and Cardinal Niccolo Albergati. Perhaps the best known of his paintings is the The Marriage of Ciovanni(?) Arnolfini and Giovanna Cenami (?), which is, at the same time, a double-portrait of great psychological insight, a meticulously rendered interior and one of the Ist genre paintings. The greatest aspect of Jan's genius was in depicting such a scene with the utmost clarity and naturalism and yet creating from apparently mundane subjects a mystery so rich that it has eluded all analysis.